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This is from the PG free Mock Test 26/10/14. Can some one tell me suitable values to substitute for the question

If x cosec a + y cot a = x cosec b + y cot b = 9, then

cosec a + cosec b- cosec a cosec b=

  •   a. (18x+81+y^2)/x^2-y^2
  •   b. (18x-81-y^2)/x^2-y^2
      c. (18x-81+y^2)/x^2-y^2
      d. (18x+81-y^2)/x^2+y^2

    I kno options a and c are the same..it was like that in the test.

  •  
Valar Dohaeris..
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RC:


In the 1950s, Niels Jerne, the famous Swiss immunologist, rocked the world of immunology to its core. At the time, there was a nearly unanimous consensus among immunologists that antibody formation was equivalent to a learning process in which the antigen played an instructive role. Antigens are usually proteins or polysaccharides that make up parts of cell surfaces. These cells can be microbes, such as bacteria or viruses, or nonmicrobial, such as pollen, or protein from transplanted organs, tissues or on the surface of transfused blood cells. Jerne suggested that instead of a specifically designed antibody being formed when an antigen presented itself, the body was born supplied with all the different types of antibodies that it was ever going to have: antigens were merely molecules that were recognized or selected by one of these innate antibodies. No instruction was going on, just selection. The complexity is built into the immune system, it doesn't become more so over time. His ideas are the foundation for what is now known about antibody response and clonal selection theory (the cloning, that is, the multiplying, of white blood cells with receptors that bind to invading antigens). Most of these antibodies will never encounter a matching foreign antigen, but those that do are activated and produce many clones of themselves to bind and inactivate the invading antigen.


Jerne kept on shaking things up. He later suggested that if the immune system works on this selection process, then most likely other systems do, too, including the brain. He wrote an article in 1967, entitled 'Antibodies and Learning: Selection versus Instruction', on the importance of viewing the brain as responding to selection processes and not to instruction: the brain was not an undifferentiated mass that could learn anything, just as the immune system was not an undifferentiated system that could produce any type of antibody. He made the startling suggestion that learning may actually be the process of sorting through pre-existing capacities that we innately possess to apply to a particular challenge facing us at a moment in time. In other words, these capacities are genetically determined neural networks specialized for particular kinds of learning. An oft-used example is that it is easy to learn to be afraid of snakes, while it is difficult to learn to be afraid of flowers. We have a built-in template that elicits a fear reaction when we detect certain types of motion, such as slithering in the grass, but no such innate reaction to flowers. Here, just as in the immune system, the idea is that complexity is built into the brain. The very important idea is that there is selection from pre-existing capacity. But it also implies constraints. If the capacity is not built-in, it does not exist.

The older model of the brain featured an undifferentiated mass ready to learn: any brain could learn anything. For such a brain, it would be as easy to teach it to enjoy the fragrance of roses as the stench of rotten eggs. Jerne's ideas challenged this conception and argued that the brain is built in a very specific way, which is genetically determined, and that we arrive from the baby factory mostly prewired.

What is the main topic of this passage?


1) Niels Jerne's radical medical ideas

2) Jerne's theory about antibody formation in immunology

3) Niels Jerne's views on learning and the structure of the brain

4) The connection between the immune system and the brain, as per Jerne

What was Niels Jerne's big idea as given in the first paragraph?

1) The immune system does not become more complex over time.

2) The immune system is much more complex than previously supposed.

3) Antibodies target specific antigens, rather than responding to all kinds of antigens at random.

4) Antibodies are present in the body from birth, rather than being formed in response to specific antigens.

What, according to the passage, is the similarity between the immune system and the brain?

1) Just as the immune system has the pre-existing capacity to produce any type of antibody, the brain has the inbuilt capacity to learn anything.

2) The immune system has a pre-existing set of antibodies from birth; similarly, the brain has an inborn set of mental templates that are applied when learning.

3) The immune system has the ability to select which antibody can be used with which antigen; in the same way, the brain can select which mental template to use when learning different things.

4) None of the above

What is the most likely source of this passage?

1) A scholarly article on antibody formation

2) A news item in a contemporary medical journal

3) A book on medical theories written in the 1980s

4) An extract from the biography of Niels Jerne

-IMS

Tryst with destiny! 

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find the sum of the first 125 terms of the sequence 1,2,1,3,2,1,4,3,2,1.....

  • 17Comments
  • establish pattern 1 then 2->1 then 3->2->1 the series ca.... 15h.
  • 750. 6m.
  17 Comments
majjubizman
Shankhadip Majumder @majjubizman 1

establish pattern 1 then 2->1  then 3->2->1 the series can be thought of as a collection of series each series having n elements like 1st series has 1 and 2nd one has 2 and so on so for computing number of elements the total number of elements is the sum of elements in each series which is 1+2+3... now keeping in mind (n)(n+1)/2 closest to 125 is (15*16)/2 which is 120 so first 15 series have 120 elements notice that 16th series will begin from 16 and will be 16,15,14,13,12,11 sum of which is 70 summation of the rest of the series is summation of ser1 1 ser2 1+2 ser3 1+2+3  basically using (n)(n+1)/2 formula we have to run from 1 to 15 , using summation rules we can Break down the series as running N/2 from 1 to 15 and N^2/2 from 1 to 15 ie (1+2..15)/2 and (1^2+2^2..15^2)/2 1+2+...15=120 and formula for calculating summation of squares is (N)(N+1)(2n+1)/6 using it (1^2+2^2..15^2) is 1240 thus 1240/2=620 total 620+60+70=750 

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DhaakadChhora
Dhaakad Chhora @DhaakadChhora 11

Though now a call depends on your profile too, but still aim for around 90%ile to be on the safer side. Some candidates even convert their calls at 70%ile, but then don't be lured by that minimum%ile.

Sumana08
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Exactly!! The higher the percentile, better are ur chances.

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@upamanyu.27

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root0090
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The pecking order is much the same as for CAT led MBA admissions, there being no other congenially researched basis for any other. Specifically how XAT and the interview/RAT process differs at XLRI is probably something you need to take care of. An FPM program requires you to show that you can put your head to research and work with others while creating an insight of your own. You need to be academically good for any Doctoral level program, and your scores matter. On the flip side, placements are usually at Indian MBA institutes of comparable repute. 

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Can somebody explain to me what is the meaning of the 2 triangles being equivalent in this image .

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P.S : [T] means a trapezium.

This snap shot is from the properties of the trapezium


http://imgur.com/J1p0NaZ

None
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