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RC:


Science does not grow by simple accumulation. The carefully observed, criticised, and theoretically schematised knowledge that is transmitted to the archive is not thereafter hoarded in secret vaults; it becomes the free property of all men including the scientists themselves, and is instrumental in the generation of further knowledge.

 Nor is a scientific observer an inflexible machine, fully formed by his education. Being himself involved in the generation of new knowledge, he is continually revising his own creative and critical standards in the light of scientific progress. As the means become evident, as the possibilities present themselves, as new doors are opened by his own work or by the work of other scientists, he constructs more sensitive apparatus, seeks to confirm recent predictions, applies new theoretical formalisms, reinterprets previous discoveries, or conceives new programs of research. In other words, scientific activity is self-catalysing and self-correcting; it is governed by the outlook and directed towards the problems of its own day, as perceived by its human practitioners. 

To illustrate this dynamic process, it would be necessary to penetrate into the obscure history of some particular branch of science, to show what information was potentially available to each research worker at the time, to note deficiencies of communication, and external stimuli that gave inspiration, to wonder at imaginative leaps and inexplicable blockages. The sources of invention turn out to be extraordinarily subtle and episodic, revealing little more than the diversity of human behaviour in unfamiliar circumstances. 

Our immediate concern, however, is not so much with the psychology of discovery as with the sociology of belief. How does the scientific community react to the appearance of genuine new knowledge - in its ideal form, a well-ordered and convincing network of facts and interpretations, such as the theory of special relativity or Pasteur's clinching demonstration of the bacterial causation of disease? 

After the initial period of scepticism and resistance, a major, new scientific principle carries all before it. Having been the subject of intense research, having stood the test of many efforts at refutation, it acquires a highly reputable, almost unchallengeable status. It is the pride and joy of its creators, who are rewarded with recognition, who teach it with relish and who cannot resist imposing it inexorably on acquiescent juniors. To embed oneself mentally in the new theory, to demonstrate one's mastery of it, to make it the basis of one's research is progressive and up-to-date. A whole new area of knowledge is quickly explored and mapped out as a consequence of the 'breakthrough'. 

Here again, we need not go into the question of whether the long-term progress of science is ideally served by such waves of enthusiasm. What we should note is that the new principle - a metaphorical map of some corner of the world of nature - is rapidly internalised by every scientist to whom it seems relevant. It is not just something that he reads about in the scientific journals or a technical device that he can pick up, use and put down again as the occasion demands. As he solves problems with it, teaches it to his students and argues about it amongst his colleagues; he assimilates it as a concept, until it becomes a part of him. From the 1930's onwards, quantum mechanics, for all its philosophical paradoxes, was not just a 'theory' that could be used, if necessary, to explain atomic phenomena. Instead, to the atomic physicist, quantum mechanics had become reality; it was no longer possible to think physically in any other categorical language. 

Thus, from a scientific revolution, evolves a new paradigm. Or, in the language of the visual metaphor, the map has become a picture.

Which of the following is not part of the process of a scientific breakthrough becoming a new area of knowledge?

a.It goes through intense scrutiny and exhaustive attempts at refutation.  

b.Having been an object of intense research, it attains a highly reputable and almost unchallenged status.  

c.National pride sweeps away any resistance that the scientific community may have on the theory.  

d.As a researcher propagates a theory and attains mastery of it, it becomes a basis for further research.

Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

a.The rigorous testing to which a new discovery is subjected brings out many other related ideas, which base themselves on the original discovery.  

b.Scientists and academicians do not consider scientific journals as authentic sources of information.  

c.The framework of ideas around which a new discovery is constructed is rigorously examined and verified.  

d.The application of a new theory in scientific practice may result in a state when it becomes a construct without which a particular topic cannot be studied or understood.

The tone of the passage can be best described as

a.verbose and contrived  

b.analytical and succinct  

c.effusive and awed  

d.apathetic and indifferent


Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?

a.Science is the free property of all men and thus, is instrumental in the generation of new knowledge.  

b.The scientific method requires the investigator to keep questioning his own findings, and more importantly, keep in touch with the developments in the discipline to test the validity of his research.  

c.A new discovery that is not whole-heartedly accepted by the scientific community is invariably doomed to failure.  

d.While a new idea is not welcomed unanimously with open arms, once rigorously tested, it proceeds to gain acceptance and respectability.


The tone of the passage suggests that the author is

a.a woman journalist.  

b.a social scientist.  

c.a literary critic.  

d.a science fiction writer.

-CL Mock

  • 24Comments
  • @jaskarn see this is my understanding of why C is incorr.... 1d.
  • @rafaelnadal @harshcat91 it took almost 15-17 minutes fo.... 35m.
Tryst with destiny! 
  24 Comments
FrozenAngel
Sharad Srinivasan @FrozenAngel 68

this supports option D. whereas C is slightly off i think because of emphasis on 'framework of ideas around which a new theory is constructed'.

jaskarn
hum PK huu PK pahchan gaya kaaaaaa!!!! @jaskarn 74

@FrozenAngel  bhai from u explaination i understand why 4 is right but do not understand why c is wrong.....

FrozenAngel
Sharad Srinivasan @FrozenAngel 68

@jaskarn  see this is my understanding of why C is incorrect. :


After the initial period of scepticism and resistance, a major, new scientific principle carries all before it. Having been the subject of intense research, having stood the test of many efforts at refutation, it acquires a highly reputable, almost unchallengeable status.
this part of the passage says that the scientific principle is put to test. meaning if i claim a certain theory, the implications of it would be tested rigorously to validate the claim being made. Not the 'basis on which the claims have been made'. (denoted by framework of ideas in option C).   

appy25
Apoorva Mittal @appy25 167

@rafaelnadal @harshcat91  it took almost 15-17 minutes for me to do this passage. Can we expect so many indirect questions in an actual CAT paragraph? @harshcat91 Bhai can you share the explanations for the inference based questions.. plz it will be helpful in future analyses 

15.1k CAT Quant CAT

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Twenty percent of the paintings in a gallery are not original. A lover buys a painting. He has probability 0.10 of buying a fake for an original but he never rejects an original as a fake. What is the probability the painting he purchases is an original?

a) 40/43 b) 41/43

c) 42/43 d) 40/41

  • 2 Likes   4Comments
  • ohh out standing @catahead .. 19 Apr.
  • 40/41. 49m.

50.8k CAT Quant CAT

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In the figure given below, ABCD is a parallelogram. FI, which passes through the point of intersection of lines AC and DE, is parallel to DC. If the ratio of the area of ΔAGE to that of ΔDGC is 16 : 25, then find the ratio of the length of FH to that of HI.

8 : 1  

9 : 1  

9 : 8  

None of these

None
  • a : 8:1 .. is it right?. 1h.
  • @harshcat91. 1h.
Tryst with destiny! 

106 CAT Quant CAT

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Number of zeroes in a base N depends on the limiting prime contained in N. 

In decimal system ie base 10=2*5, we look for the number of 5's in it.

Zeroes in 100! => [100/5]+[100/5^2] = 20+4=24

In base 7 = 1*7, so number of 7

=> [100/7]+[100/7^2]=14+2=16

In base 33=3*11, so number of 11

=> [100/11]= 9

But in case if 12=2^2*3 or 24=2^3*3, 
Limiting primes are 2^2 and 2^3 respectively.

So number of zeroes in 100! In base 12=2^2*3

=> [100/2]+[100/2^2]+[100/ 2^3]+[100/2^4]+[100/2^5]+[100/ 2^6]= 97

So number of 2^2 => [97/2]= 48

  • 1 Like   4Comments
  • @rashmipagalguy Brother Because 2^*2 *. 2h.
  • Yes. Got it now. 2h.
Tryst with destiny! 
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Hi guys!! 10th-88%, 12th-94.8%, and 62% in MBBS. No work experience. What should be my percentile to get a call from ABCIKL? My scores are around 70 in the AIMCAT's. Do I have any chance so that I can get a call from any of the old IIM's or should I be looking at 2015? Last 15 days, it has totally taken a mental toll upon me with the low mock CAT scores. Thank you.  Please help.

  • 6Comments
  • don't bet bogged down by mock percentiles..keep calm..foc.... 3h.
  6 Comments
rockstar24
shuaib idrisi @rockstar24 93

don't bet bogged down by mock percentiles..keep calm..focus on accuracy in CAT..keep revising and practicing..focus on your strenghts during CAT..you will get 95+ percentile..and with this 3-4 good calls.

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Does FMS accept XAT score too?

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6 CAT ITM, Mumbai

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what is the cutoff considering september 2014 cmat results?

Plz enlighten!

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Simcat 123

Qa 49/49 147 ..

Va 41/34 95 .. relieved yet the paper was easy

Oa 90/83 242 ..  :) 

Such a confidence booster..!!! 

  • 1 Like  
When time comes, i shall be ready to conquer and claim glory..!!  
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Hi,

I needed some clarification regarding the score evaluation. 

I am applying through GMAT but my exam date is on 1st Dec,2014. SP JAIN accepts scores only till Dec 2014.  But since this would be my first GMAT attempt and I am not sure what scores I would get my query is suppose I do not get 650 on my first try but I send my scores to SP Jain and in my next attempts I clear the cutoffs by the time of score based interviews would I still be considered or scores only till Dec will be termed final?

Dreamer 

169 CAT

CAT 2014 Exam day and slot discussion

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Can anyone explain why T4-T1 = 2(T3-T2) is taken in q7? 

  • 4Comments
  • Question post karo. 5h.
  • *If the expression a1-2a2 ,2a2-3a3 ,3a3-4a4 ,4a4-a1 are i.... 5h.
aditya0912
Aditya Bansal @aditya0912 62

It would never satisfy for an AP but they have given it in solutions

aditya0912
Aditya Bansal @aditya0912 62

If the expression a1-2a2 ,2a2-3a3 ,3a3-4a4 ,4a4-a1 are in arithmetic progression then find the ratio to a1 to a2

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Do we need to post anything after online payment ?? and one more query last date for online submission is 14th nov ??

The grass looks greener on the other side of the fence.
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bull cat 10 missed:

qa-98 

va-86

oa-184

I wonder how people found quant easy in this test,some questions were irking.

DT'14 ,IIFT 2013-60.08 CAT 2013-99.43 XAT 2014-99.38

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Took it in unproctored mode

QA : 41A 37C....107   99.95 %ile(Finally, again a 100+ in CL)

VA : 42A 32C....86    99.5 %ile

OA : 83A 69C....193  99.99 %ile   

  • 1 Like   4Comments
  • how much time do you spend for each section?. 6h.
  • Generally 100 mins QA, 70 mins VA. 6h.
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CMAT Sept 14: Score-235, Rank-800 Profile: Xth- 80.5, XIIth- 86.8, Grad: 72(Delhi univ), Work ex-24 months in Research and knowledge management....Should I apply for pgpm and if yes, what are my chances of conversion? Also, how good is the 2 year pgdm program and which campus is better for the two programs?

  • I think you should apply for the PGPM program. Both the c.... 6h.
Shubham3399
Shubham Jaiswal @Shubham3399

I think you should apply for the PGPM program. Both the campus are equivalently good. You can apply for both at the same time. PGDM is only in chennai campus and for PGDM you need a work-ex of less than 24 months, if i remember correctly. For any other data on Chennai campus you can write on their page or can download the brochure!! All the best!!

11 CAT

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There are eight switches in a row from left to right on a switch board. At least one of the eight switches is switched on. In how many ways is this possible, if all the switches which are switched on are next to each other?

can somebody explain this question to me..plz

  • 5Comments
  • this is wrong answer - answer would be 28. 12 Oct.
  • 36 is the correct answer. Let's say the leftmost is s.... 6h.
  5 Comments
pulkit_malik
Pulkit Malik @pulkit_malik 986

1 way to select all the 8 switches together. 2 ways to select 7 switches together. 3 ways to select 6 switches together 

chirag91
chirag tapadia @chirag91 27

36 is the correct answer.

Let's say the leftmost is switched on. Now there are 8 ways to satisfy the given condition ranging from only 1 switch on to all 8 switches on.

Move to the second one from right now their will be 8-1=7 choices.

-1 because you don't want to repeat the case when the the two right most are switched on.

Hence answer is 8+7+6.............+1=36

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Kyonki Karne Se Hota Hai!! 
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If a no is divided by 5, 6 and 8 the remainder are 3,4  and 7 resp. what is the no?

please explain the approach , i forgot but there is a shortcut the no are multiplied and added in zig zag way,, some body please explain

  • 13Comments
  • @abd7 haan bhai chcek karta hun thnks. 8h.
  • @vikelec 3a+1=5b=7c+1, take first two eq , a=8 and b=5 .... 7h.

inner peace

  13 Comments
kulk
Achyut Kulkarni @kulk 76

@vikelec --- successively matlab ,,,ex : 400 wen divided by 3,7,5 remainders are 400/3(remainder-1,quotient - 133), now 133/7(r-0,q-19) , divide 19/5(r-4,q-3) ..so 400wen divided by 3,7,5 leave 1,0,4 remainders respectively,,,,

the other one is normal ..ex 400/3 gives r-1 : 400/5 gives r-0 and 400/7 gives r-1...and so on..

abd7
bunny . @abd7 381

Vivek bhai #9 and #5 padhle. Any more help then tag me. in the meanwhile check out TAKSHZILA SHIkSHAK On YouTube. Uske numbers ke videos mein hoga ye. LCM models and all. Watch them and you'll learn @vikelec 

vikelec
Vivek Rana @vikelec 65

@kulk bhai successively wale ka toh method samajh gaya

"the other one is normal ..ex 400/3 gives r-1 : 400/5 gives r-0 and 400/7 gives r-1...and so on.." yeh kaise karenge

hemante
Hemante Singhal @hemante 99

@vikelec  3a+1=5b=7c+1, take first two eq  , a=8 and b=5 will satisfy and will give 25... so it now becomes 25 + 15d=7c+1 , 85 will satisfy... so 85 is the smallest no satisfying this...next nos will be 85 + LCM of 3,5,7