The immigration of Europeans and the importation of West African
slaves to America resulted in a convergence of cultures, traditions, and
art forms, including music. Jazz, first played in New Orleans in the
early 1900s, borrowed heavily from the European musical scale and
harmonic system. Jazz ensembles were built predominantly on European
instruments, such as the trumpet, trombone, saxophone, and piano. The
West African influence on jazz was manifested primarily in its
performance. Scatting, a technique used by jazz vocalists to mimic the
sounds of instruments, had its origin in West African vocal traditions.
The emphasis on improvisation in jazz music, in addition to group
participation, also came from West African music.
musicologists argue that jazz is a purely American form of music.
Others, however, contend that jazz is rooted in a history similar to
that of America itself, a history of confluence. Proponents of the
argument that jazz is purely American often point to its genesis in New
Orleans as evidence for this perspective. The irony, however, is that
the essence of America lies in the plurality of its roots. To deny the
rich and complex history of jazz, and the true origins of the art form,
is to deny the very aspects of the art form that make it undeniably
1.The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
a. Although American football was derived from the English sports of
soccer and rugby, it should be called a purely American sport because it
was first played in America.
b. Because American football was derived from the English sports of soccer and rugby, it should not be called an American sport.
c. Most sports scholars deny the English origins of American football.
d. What makes American football American is its derivation from the English sports of soccer and rugby.
e. Because the essence of America lies in the plurality of its roots, American football should not be called an American sport.
2.Which of the following elements of jazz most likely has its origin in West African musical traditions?
a. the emphasis on a tonal harmonic structure
b. the use of an instrument to mimic a vocalist's sound
c. the use of traditional African instruments
d. the use of many instruments in a jazz ensemble
e. an impromptu call-and-response between two instruments in the ensemble
3.The primary purpose of the passage is to
a. demonstrate how new art forms evolve
b. describe a medium's diverse cultural genesis and a relevant paradox
c. argue that a new art form has its origins in the geographic location where it developed
d. describe the impact of African culture on an American art form
e. claim that one culture had a greater impact than another on the evolution of a new art form