Science does not grow by simple accumulation. The carefully observed, criticised, and theoretically schematised knowledge that is transmitted to the archive is not thereafter hoarded in secret vaults; it becomes the free property of all men including the scientists themselves, and is instrumental in the generation of further knowledge.
Nor is a scientific observer an inflexible machine, fully formed by his education. Being himself involved in the generation of new knowledge, he is continually revising his own creative and critical standards in the light of scientific progress. As the means become evident, as the possibilities present themselves, as new doors are opened by his own work or by the work of other scientists, he constructs more sensitive apparatus, seeks to confirm recent predictions, applies new theoretical formalisms, reinterprets previous discoveries, or conceives new programs of research. In other words, scientific activity is self-catalysing and self-correcting; it is governed by the outlook and directed towards the problems of its own day, as perceived by its human practitioners.
To illustrate this dynamic process, it would be necessary to penetrate into the obscure history of some particular branch of science, to show what information was potentially available to each research worker at the time, to note deficiencies of communication, and external stimuli that gave inspiration, to wonder at imaginative leaps and inexplicable blockages. The sources of invention turn out to be extraordinarily subtle and episodic, revealing little more than the diversity of human behaviour in unfamiliar circumstances.
Our immediate concern, however, is not so much with the psychology of discovery as with the sociology of belief. How does the scientific community react to the appearance of genuine new knowledge - in its ideal form, a well-ordered and convincing network of facts and interpretations, such as the theory of special relativity or Pasteur's clinching demonstration of the bacterial causation of disease?
After the initial period of scepticism and resistance, a major, new scientific principle carries all before it. Having been the subject of intense research, having stood the test of many efforts at refutation, it acquires a highly reputable, almost unchallengeable status. It is the pride and joy of its creators, who are rewarded with recognition, who teach it with relish and who cannot resist imposing it inexorably on acquiescent juniors. To embed oneself mentally in the new theory, to demonstrate one's mastery of it, to make it the basis of one's research is progressive and up-to-date. A whole new area of knowledge is quickly explored and mapped out as a consequence of the 'breakthrough'.
Here again, we need not go into the question of whether the long-term progress of science is ideally served by such waves of enthusiasm. What we should note is that the new principle - a metaphorical map of some corner of the world of nature - is rapidly internalised by every scientist to whom it seems relevant. It is not just something that he reads about in the scientific journals or a technical device that he can pick up, use and put down again as the occasion demands. As he solves problems with it, teaches it to his students and argues about it amongst his colleagues; he assimilates it as a concept, until it becomes a part of him. From the 1930's onwards, quantum mechanics, for all its philosophical paradoxes, was not just a 'theory' that could be used, if necessary, to explain atomic phenomena. Instead, to the atomic physicist, quantum mechanics had become reality; it was no longer possible to think physically in any other categorical language.
Thus, from a scientific revolution, evolves a new paradigm. Or, in the language of the visual metaphor, the map has become a picture.Which of the following is not part of the process of a scientific breakthrough becoming a new area of knowledge?
a.It goes through intense scrutiny and exhaustive attempts at refutation.
b.Having been an object of intense research, it attains a highly reputable and almost unchallenged status.
c.National pride sweeps away any resistance that the scientific community may have on the theory.
d.As a researcher propagates a theory and attains mastery of it, it becomes a basis for further research.Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
a.The rigorous testing to which a new discovery is subjected brings out many other related ideas, which base themselves on the original discovery.
b.Scientists and academicians do not consider scientific journals as authentic sources of information.
c.The framework of ideas around which a new discovery is constructed is rigorously examined and verified.
d.The application of a new theory in scientific practice may result in a state when it becomes a construct without which a particular topic cannot be studied or understood.The tone of the passage can be best described as
a.verbose and contrived
b.analytical and succinct
c.effusive and awed
d.apathetic and indifferent
a.Science is the free property of all men and thus, is instrumental in the generation of new knowledge.
b.The scientific method requires the investigator to keep questioning his own findings, and more importantly, keep in touch with the developments in the discipline to test the validity of his research.
c.A new discovery that is not whole-heartedly accepted by the scientific community is invariably doomed to failure.
d.While a new idea is not welcomed unanimously with open arms, once rigorously tested, it proceeds to gain acceptance and respectability.
a.a woman journalist.
b.a social scientist.
c.a literary critic.
d.a science fiction writer.
Twenty percent of the paintings in a gallery are not original. A lover buys a painting. He has probability 0.10 of buying a fake for an original but he never rejects an original as a fake. What is the probability the painting he purchases is an original?
a) 40/43 b) 41/43
c) 42/43 d) 40/41
In the figure given below, ABCD is a parallelogram. FI, which passes through the point of intersection of lines AC and DE, is parallel to DC. If the ratio of the area of ΔAGE to that of ΔDGC is 16 : 25, then find the ratio of the length of FH to that of HI.
a 8 : 1
b 9 : 1
c 9 : 8
d None of these
Number of zeroes in a base N depends on the limiting prime contained in N.
In decimal system ie base 10=2*5, we look for the number of 5's in it.
Zeroes in 100! => [100/5]+[100/5^2] = 20+4=24
In base 7 = 1*7, so number of 7
In base 33=3*11, so number of 11
=> [100/11]= 9
But in case if 12=2^2*3 or 24=2^3*3,
Limiting primes are 2^2 and 2^3 respectively.
So number of zeroes in 100! In base 12=2^2*3
=> [100/2]+[100/2^2]+[100/ 2^3]+[100/2^4]+[100/2^5]+[100/ 2^6]= 97
So number of 2^2 => [97/2]= 48
Hi guys!! 10th-88%, 12th-94.8%, and 62% in MBBS. No work experience. What should be my percentile to get a call from ABCIKL? My scores are around 70 in the AIMCAT's. Do I have any chance so that I can get a call from any of the old IIM's or should I be looking at 2015? Last 15 days, it has totally taken a mental toll upon me with the low mock CAT scores. Thank you. Please help.
Does FMS accept XAT score too?
Moreover what is the minimum cutoff considered through CAT?
what is the cutoff considering september 2014 cmat results?
Qa 49/49 147 ..
Va 41/34 95 .. relieved yet the paper was easy
Oa 90/83 242 .. :)
Such a confidence booster..!!!
I needed some clarification regarding the score evaluation.
I am applying through GMAT but my exam date is on 1st Dec,2014. SP JAIN accepts scores only till Dec 2014. But since this would be my first GMAT attempt and I am not sure what scores I would get my query is suppose I do not get 650 on my first try but I send my scores to SP Jain and in my next attempts I clear the cutoffs by the time of score based interviews would I still be considered or scores only till Dec will be termed final?
Can anyone explain why T4-T1 = 2(T3-T2) is taken in q7?
Do we need to post anything after online payment ?? and one more query last date for online submission is 14th nov ??
bull cat 10 missed:
I wonder how people found quant easy in this test,some questions were irking.
Took it in unproctored mode
QA : 41A 37C....107 99.95 %ile(Finally, again a 100+ in CL)
VA : 42A 32C....86 99.5 %ile
OA : 83A 69C....193 99.99 %ile
CMAT Sept 14: Score-235, Rank-800 Profile: Xth- 80.5, XIIth- 86.8, Grad: 72(Delhi univ), Work ex-24 months in Research and knowledge management....Should I apply for pgpm and if yes, what are my chances of conversion? Also, how good is the 2 year pgdm program and which campus is better for the two programs?
There are eight switches in a row from left to right on a switch board. At least one of the eight switches is switched on. In how many ways is this possible, if all the switches which are switched on are next to each other?
can somebody explain this question to me..plz
In how many ways can 14 Identical toys distributed among 3 boys so that each boy gets at least one toy and no two boy get the same number of toys?
If a no is divided by 5, 6 and 8 the remainder are 3,4 and 7 resp. what is the no?
please explain the approach , i forgot but there is a shortcut the no are multiplied and added in zig zag way,, some body please explain