Discussion platform for SEBI GRADE A exam
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IMPORTANT TOPIC FOR SEBI GR A 2020 EXAM COMMERCE & ACCOUNTS
Ratio Analysis and its Applications
Ratio analysis is a medium to understand the financial weakness and soundness of an organization. Keeping in mind the objective of analysis, the analyst has to select appropriate data to calculate appropriate ratios. Interpretation depends upon the caliber of the analyst.
Ratio analysis is useful in many ways to different concerned parties according to their respective requirements. Ratio analysis can be used in the following ways:
To know the financial strength and weakness of an organization.
To measure operative efficiency of a concern.
For the management to review past year’s activity.
To assess level of efficiency.
To predict the future plans of a business.
To optimize capital structure.
In inter and intra company comparisons.
To measure liquidity, solvency, profitability and managerial efficiency of a concern.
In proper utilization of assets of a company.
In budget preparation.
In assessing solvency of a firm, bankruptcy position of a firm, and chances of corporate sickness.
Advantages of Ratio Analysis
· It is powerful tool to measure short and long-term solvency of a company.
· It is a tool to measure profitability and managerial efficiency of a company.
· It is an important tool to measure operating activities of a business.
· It helps in analyzing the capital structure of a company.
· Large quantitative data may be summarized using ratio analysis.
· It relates past accounting performances with the current.
· It is useful in coordinating the different functional machineries of a company.
· It helps the management in future decision-making.
· It helps in maintaining a reasonable balance between sales and purchase and estimating working capital requirements.
Limitations of Ratio Analysis
Although Ratio Analysis is a very useful accounting tools to analyze and interpret different accounting equations, it comes with its own set of limitations:
· If the data received from financial accounting is incorrect, then the information derived from ratio analysis could not be reliable.
· Unauthenticated data may lead to misinterpretation of ratio analysis.
· Future prediction may not be always dependable, as ratio analysis is based on the past performance.
· To get a conclusive idea about the business, a series of ratios is to be calculated. A single ratio cannot serve the purpose.
· It is not necessary that a ratio can give the real present situation of a business, as the result is based on historical data.
· Trend analysis is done with the help of various calculated ratios that can be distorted due to the changes in the price level.
· Ratio analysis is effective only where same accounting principles and policies are adopted by other concerns too, otherwise inter-company comparison will not exhibit a real picture at all.
· Through ratio analysis, special events cannot be identified. For example, maturity of debentures cannot be identified with ratio analysis.
· For effective ratio analysis, practical experience and knowledge about particular industry is essential. Otherwise, it may prove worthless.
· Ratio analysis is a useful tool only in the hands of an expert.
Types of Ratio
Ratios can be classified on the basis of financial statements or on the basis of functional aspects.
Classification on the Basis of Financial Statement
Balance Sheet Ratios
Ratios calculated from taking various data from the balance sheet are called balance sheet ratio. For example, current ratio, liquid ratio, capital gearing ratio, debt equity ratio, and proprietary ratio, etc.
Revenue Statement Ratio
Ratios calculated on the basis of data appearing in the trading account or the profit and loss account are called revenue statement ratios. For example, operating ratio, net profit ratio, gross profit ratio, stock turnover ratio.
Mixed or Composite Ratio
When the data from both balance sheet and revenue statements are used, it is called mixed or composite ratio. For example, working capital turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, accounts payable turnover ratio, fixed assets turnover ratio, return of net worth ratio, return on investment ratio.
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MANAGEMENT: Corporate Governance as Risk Mitigation:
Corporate governance is of vital importance to a company and is almost as important as its primary business plan. When executed successfully, it can prevent corporate scandals, fraud and the civil and criminal liability of the company. It also improves a company’s status in the public opinion as a self-policing company that is responsible and worthy of shareholder and debt holder capital. It commands the shared philosophy, practices and culture of an organization and its employees. Firm without a system of corporate governance is often regarded as a body without a soul or conscience. Corporate governance enables a company honest and free from trouble. If this shared attitude breaks down, then corners will be cut, products will be defective and management will grow complacent and corrupt. The end result is a fall that will occur when gravity in the form of audited financial reports, criminal investigations and federal probes finally catches up, destroying the company instantaneously. Deceitful and unethical dealings can cause shareholders to escape out of fear, distrust and disgust.Plethora of research has revealed that good corporate governance can result in improved share price performance. It is well established in management reports that there is a great potential for good performance by companies, which have got good corporate governance mechanism and the greatest benefit is in developing companies. Studies have showed that investors are enthusiastic to invest in a better-governed company. Corporate Governance can be strong mechanism for development especially in country like India.
The following issues are important for good Corporate Governance.
1.The rights and obligation of shareholders.
2.Impartial treatment of all stakeholders.
3.The role of all stakeholders clearly defined and the linkage for corporate governance established.
4.Transparency, disclosure of information and audit.
5.The role of board of directors clearly defined.
6.The role of non-executive members of the board clearly defined.
7.Executive management and compensation and performance clearly defined.
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HOW TO PREPARE & CRACK SEBI GR A 2020?
SEBI Assistant Manager’s post is one of the most prestigious and lucrative job options available for the government job aspirants. In recent times, it has become one of the toughest examination to crack as well.
Being a very sought after job, the competition is tough and an aspirant needs to be well aware about whens and hows of the examination and prepare in advance for the examination. Let us lay some background in order to prepare aspiring Assistant Manager candidates for such a grueling challenge.
SEBI Recruitment 2020 Cut Off – Phase I examination
(ii) There shall be a cut-off of minimum 30% for Paper 1 (no sectional cut-off shall be there) and a cut-off of minimum 40% for Paper 2 in Phase I
(iii) Candidates would need to secure separate cut-off in each paper as mentioned at (ii) above as well as aggregate cut-off marks of 40% in Phase I exam to be shortlisted for Phase II. Marks obtained in Phase I shall be used only for shortlisting the candidates for Phase II examination process and will not be counted for final selection of the candidates.
(iv) Subject to the criteria mentioned at (iii) above, all the candidates who clear Phase I shall be shortlisted for Phase II. List of candidates shortlisted for Phase II will be made available on SEBI website.
SEBI Grade ‘A’ 2020 Phase II Online Exam Pattern
Candidates who qualify the Phase I online examination for Grade A officer will be called upon to take the Phase II online examination.
The marks from Phase I exam will not be accounted for in subsequent rounds. This will be used only for qualifying for phase II.
The Phase II examination is also held online.
An on-line examination consisting of two papers of 100 marks each will be held on May 03, 2020 for Phase II.
There will be negative marking (1/4th marks deducted for wrong answer) for Papers 1 & 2 in Phase II (except IT stream for which details shall be informed in due course).
Again, there is cut-off of minimum 30% for Paper 1 and a cut-off of minimum 40% for Paper 2 in Phase II.
Candidates would need to secure separate cut-off in each paper as mentioned at above as well as aggregate cut-off marks of 40% in Phase II exam (weightage of 1/3rd for Paper 1 and 2/3rd for Paper 2) to be shortlisted for Phase III.
Subject to the criteria mentioned at (v) above, candidates equaling 3 times the number of vacancies shall be shortlisted, in order of merit, for Phase III i.e. the Interview.
As against SEBI Recruitment 2018 there’ll be no Essay, Precis & Comprehension this time around.
All question papers (in both the Phases, except the test of English) will be set bilingually in Hindi and English.
SEBI Grade ‘A’ INTERVIEW
Candidates equaling 3 times the number of vacancies, who qualify the cut-off criteria for and Phase II of the online examination will be called for the interview.
The interview maximum marks have not been disclosed. However, historically Interview has been of 50 marks and is generally based on the knowledge of the candidate with regards to the subject matter (general or specialization) and securities market.
The candidate must be well prepared about the personal and educational background and shall follow the basic conventions of interview like:
- Being neatly and formally dressed;
- Being confident;
- No or minimal make-up;
- Being polite and cordial towards the panel;
- Being honest and answering in brief accurate, to the point answers;
The candidate must note that, it is not necessary to answer the questions/communicate with the interview panel in English only. The candidate may answer/communicate in Hindi also. The main point of the interview is to test the knowledge of the candidate and not how well versed he is in English language. The candidate must keep that in mind and answer in a language that he feels comfortable in.
Eligibility for Taking the Test
An aspirant has to be of certain age and have specific qualifications to make him eligible to take the test. The eligibility for test is given below:
SEBI Grade A officer 2020 Age Limit (as on 29/02/2020):
a. A candidate must not have exceeded the age of 30 years as on February 29, 2020 i.e., candidate must have been born on or after March 01, 1990. Age relaxation of 5 years for SC/ST and 3 years for eligible candidates from OBC category is also provided.
Syllabus for SEBI Grade A entrance 2020
SEBI has once again done the unexpected and changed the syllabus.
You have to familiarize oneself with the what, when, how and where of the upcoming examination
Following syllabus has been provided in advance for previous recruitment
Syllabus for Paper 2 of Phase I & Phase II in General Stream
This consists of new topics Commerce and Accountancy, Management, Finance, Costing, Companies Act and Economics
Specialized Subjects (Legal / Information Technology / Engineering/ Research Streams/Official Language Stream):
Syllabus for Paper 2 of Phase I & Phase II in Legal Stream consists of Constitution of India, Contract, Criminal law, Evidence Act, Transfer of property Act etc.
Syllabus for Paper 2 of Phase I in Information Technology, Engineering and Research stream consists of specialized topic as per the streams
Preparation For General Awareness:
If you are well prepared for this section, you won’t have to spend much time on it. The questions are based on facts and events. You either know or don’t know the answers and thus, answering this paper will take comparatively lesser time. In this section, you don’t have to solve problems like in other papers. All you need to do is to prepare efficiently by covering all the relevant topics and revising them regularly in order to recall the facts when required. As the composite time duration for Phase 1 – Online Test is 120 minutes, saving time in General Awareness paper will give you sufficient time to solve questions in Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude sections.
This paper basically has three types of questions – Static GK, Current Affairs and Banking Awareness.
- Static GK: The topics here are based on the facts which do not change. You need to refer to previous year papers or sample papers to know the type of questions asked. Refer to standard books which will provide you with all the relevant information required.
- Current Affairs: These questions are based on current events. Usually, past 6-9 months of current affairs can be asked. Reading newspapers on a regular basis will help you a lot in your preparation. Make note of the key points while reading newspapers and current affair magazines. This will help you to revise the events quickly.
- Banking Awareness: These questions are from banking terms, the history of banking, SEBI functions, etc. Refer to banking awareness books to know the static banking terms and facts. Also, keep an eye on the current happening in the banking and finance sector.
Most importantly, take daily online quizzes and online mock tests to strengthen your knowledge related to General Awareness section. Go through the facts regularly.
Preparation For English Language:
This section tests your knowledge of English language and your ability to use it. English Grammar, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension are the three basic parts which you need to focus on.
- English Grammar: Refer to standard books and brush up your knowledge of English grammar. Learn to apply and practice by taking sample papers. Thorough knowledge and application of English grammar will enable you to score well in much lesser time.
- Vocabulary: Improve your vocabulary by reading English newspapers, magazines, books etc. Cultivating a habit of reading will help you a lot. Whenever you read, focus on the new words you encounter and know their meaning. Learning new words and knowing how and where to use them will help you score higher. You can also use online platforms to learn a few new words every day.
- Reading Comprehension: The habit of reading on a regular basis will improve your English reading and understanding skills. Reading habit will help you to read and understand quickly and save your time. The questions which are based on a passage can be solved easily and quickly, in turn, boosting your score.
Altogether, be thorough with your basics, read regularly and practice by taking mock tests.
Preparation For Quantitative Aptitude:
In this section, you will be tested for your mathematical knowledge and problem-solving skills.
- Be clear with your basics. Brush up the theoretical concepts of Elementary Mathematics.
- Memorize all the essential formulae and learn when and how to use them.
- Few questions in this section are direct formula based so, don’t miss out such questions in your preparation.
- Problems based on Permutations and Combinations, Time-Speed-Distance, etc., need a deeper understanding and visualization. Hence, go through example problems and understand the problems thoroughly.
- Solve different types of problems with varying difficulty level.
- Take mock tests and work on your mistakes.
Preparation For Reasoning:
This section tests your analytical and reasoning abilities. Various types of questions with different difficulty level will be asked.
- Understand the theory and logic behind every concept thoroughly.
- Go through the basic data available in the questions carefully, be clear with the terms used and their relations.
- Follow the sample problems and understand the procedure to solve them.
- Try and practice puzzles on a regular basis to develop your logical and analytical skills.
There also has been a change in the exam pattern and to catch up with it you need to look up for Mock tests which are based on latest patterns because that will help you prepare well if you have a clear idea of the questions and the type that make up the paper. So it is better if you look at them before hand.
SEBI Officer Grade A Preparation For Phase 2
SEBI Officer Grade A Preparation For Financial Management:
- In Financial Management you need to have a very good conceptual knowledge of the subject.
- Refer to previous year papers to understand the type of questions asked
- Make a habit of taking notes while studying.
- Refer to books and online study material to learn the selected important topics within the short time available.
Best Books & Study Material For SEBI Officer Grade A Preparation
Best Books For General Awareness
- Lucent’s General Knowledge
- Newspapers – Hindu, Live Mint, Business Standard
Best Books For General English
- Objective General English by SP Bakshi
- Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis
- Corrective English by AK Singh
Best Books For Quantitative Aptitude
- Quantitative Aptitude by RS Agrawal
- Quantitative Aptitude Chapter-Wise Solved Papers by Kiran’s Publication
SEBI Officer Grade A Best Books For Reasoning
- verbal and Non- erbal Reasoning by RS Agrawal
- Analytical Reasoning by M K Pandey
- How To Crack Test Of Reasoning – In all Competitive Exams by Arihant Publications
Best Books For Financial Management
- Indian Economy by Mishra Puri
- RBI Bulletins
- Economic Survey of India
- Annual Budget
Best Books For English Descriptive
- Descriptive English by S.P Bakshi
- handbook for letter writing by S C Gupta
- 151 Essays by S C Gupta
- Newspapers- The Hindu, The Mint, etc
For Preparatory Notes Peep In www.facebook.com/groups/SEBI.GR.A.STUDY.MATERIALS
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Guys..Honestly speaking studing from any coaching institute will not work as time is less and syllabus is totally new. And coaching institutes don't have experience in this new revised syllabus as this for the first time ethis syllabus is asked by SEBI . So better u study from textbooks rather than paying tocoaching institutes and who themselves have seen this for the first time .
What books are you guys choosing to study from, for SEBI grade A general stream preparation for paper 2 of phase 1?
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