Rules, Posting Guidelines [Reloaded]

Hi, Welcome to PaGaLGuY. Read the rules and guidelines of posting below. For a general understanding of the forum and how it works, visit this link. *Rules/FAQ for the forum. A maximum of three warnings for any user not following the below …


Welcome to PaGaLGuY. Read the rules and guidelines of posting below. For a general understanding of the forum and how it works, visit this link.
Rules/FAQ for the forum. A maximum of three warnings for any user not following the below rules.

0. Advertising (direct or surrogate), generating leads in public or through Private Messages on the forum is not allowed without permission of Any advertising on the site without permission will immediately invite an immediate public ban. If you wish to advertise, please contact [email protected]

You may freely share personal blogs or initiatives in your signature. However, posting your own blogs or websites with a clear focus on diverting discussions away from the forum or business angle is clearly not done. Do not spam the threads with Press Releases or marketing content, such as copy-paste of website or brochure content of a b-school.

1. Familiarise yourself with this place
Take your own sweet time to familiarise with the forum and its pulse. Only then start posting. Visit other similar forums to know the difference between forum and an e-group.

2. Where to start?
I. Start by providing a brief introduction about yourself in the 'Anouncement' Section's "Introduce Yourself" thread. This will help exisiting members know more about you so that they can help, if need be.

II. Best place to start posting is in Chit-Chat forum. Whatever you do there, will be recieved in lighter vein and you wont be disappointed to see your first posts/thread locked/moved or criticized.

3. Spams & Flames
I. No multiple threads on same/similar topics. We encourage posting in existing threads so that the forum is more manageable. Mutiple threads would be locked by moderators and purged later.

II. Do not SPAM or post in threads that have specific puposes ( like, Alumni Zone, Announcements ) unless you mean it. Frequent violaters shall be banned.

III. We are all a friendly and helpful bunch out here. Don't make personal attacks on anyone. Bring it to notice any issue/concerns to mods if need be.

IV. USE SHOUTBOX whenever in doubt. Some of the old-timers mite be around at that time to help you.

4. Posting in threads
I. Sharing of personal information such as Phone numbers/addresses in posts are strictly forbidden. You may use PM/mail to share such information.

II. No canvasing to sell any materials. Exchange of exam related items such as Mock Cats, materials is however permitted. Users violating this rule would be warned. And repeated offenders would be banned.

III. Make use of the Search functionality extensively. This place has been around for a while and your question might have already been raised and answered in appropriate thread(s). Trivial threads shall be locked and purged immediately.

IV. Use quote function whenever you are refering to a particular post/posts. This will facilitate easy reading. However, refrain from quoting full posts as it will occupy unnecessary space.

V. Name your threads appropriately. This will not only facilitate user to filter unwanted threads but also it will make search easier. For example, a thread on SimCat-1 better have that word in the title rather than an something like "My first simulated feline examination".

VI. Go easy on CAPS. Posting messages in CAPS is not only rude but also makes it uncomfortable to read. Refrain from using very light or dark colours for posts. They annoy readers.

VII. Be nice to everyone. Sarcastic comments, innuendoes and behaviour unbecoming of the regulars who visit here will not be taken lightly.

VIII. Do not post MATERIAL where you do not have permission to distribute it electronically or otherwise.

IX. Observe all Copyright Laws, Terms of Services and Trademarks when posting copyrighted material. If the material belongs to someone else, do credit the original author. Do not post messages that violate National or State Laws, which include, but are not limited to, anything that violates a copyright, trademark, patent or trade secret.

X. You will not discuss, suggest, engage, or encourage any Illegal Activities. Links provided to locations that deal with any such activity are also expressly forbidden

XI. This is a neutral forum and everybody is on the same footing. Any attempts to advertise or do shady activities (cloning, misrepresentation) for surrogate advertising will be strictly dealt with.

Moderators and Administrators frequently review forum messages for those that are in violation of Forum rules. Any messages found to be in violation will be deleted without warning or explanation.

PaGaL GuY Forum reserves the right to edit, reprint, distribute, or delete any posting for any reason and without prior notification or explanation to the author.

PaGaL GuY Forum takes no responsibility for the content of any of the messages posted in the Forum or of the authenticity of its authors.

All opinions and views expressed in the PaGaL Forum are solely those of their respective authors and are not necessarily those of PaGaL GuY Forum or its representatives.

PaGaL GuY reserves the right to change the aforementioned rules at any time without warning or notice.

It is the responsibility of the forum member to check this page on a regular basis for any revisions in PaGaL GuY Forum rules before making any posts to the forum.

By posting to the PaGaL GuY Forum, you agree to abide by the above rules and terms.

In the end. Just be nice, have fun and treat others with respect. Glad to have you on board :)

Major thanks to Sambar, Praveen and Adiieu for creating the above set of rules for the forum.

I personally would ask the forum members, old and new to adhere to the above tenets. If a newbie makes a mistake, please send him/her back to this post. If need be, quote the specific rule as a reply to the wrong post.

I'm sure once all of you help in the active moderation, the forum will be a better place and we will be able to maintain the quality of the forum for years to come. If you see a post not following the above rules, feel free to intervene and make your point.

More than we mods doing the job, I would sincerely appreciate it if everyone moderated for the betterment of the place to ensure the quality we have come to expect of this place.

Warmest Regards,

pagalguy Says
Major thanks to Sambar, Praveen and Adiieu for creating the above set of rules for the forum.

PG..the credit should go ONLY to Praveen and has been vey busy with work for the past 2 days and contributed zilch to the above... :oops:
But Praveen and Samba....great work guyz :):)

Hope PG-ites implement the above set of rules 😃

C'mon now Adiieu!!

You still part of that were first to volunteer! So credits to you as well!! 😃 😃

Rules Updated. Please be thorough with them before posting.

Well its high time all the n00bs hv a pee-ka-boo at the rules and guidelines of the forum before posting/starting new threads.

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With the advent of huge amount of data in technological era, SQL and NoSQL databases are majorly used. SQL stands for Structured Query Language which is used mainly for relational database management system and NoSQL refers to Not Only SQL which is a collection of non-relational data storage systems.

There are different types of RDBMS such as MS Access, Oracle, MySQL, Informix, SQL Server, Sybase which uses SQL as their standard database query language. Today SQL databases become an unavoidable part of IT department of any organization. MySQL is a Relational Database based SQL implementation for the web which is now being used in very large-scale websites such as Facebook etc.

There is relaxation of one or more of the ACID properties in NoSQL. Some of the NoSQL databases are Cassandra, CouchDB, Hadoop & Hbase, MongoDB, StupidDB. The aim of this blog is to compare these two SQL & NOSQL databases and tries to figure out which is better in terms of their performance & scalability.

It is a well known fact that SQL databases have taken over the world of data technologies and have been the primary source of data storage over decades. SQL databases are generally for accessing the relational databases.

Soon enough data started growing exponentially and scalability became a major issue, at that time NoSQL rolled in to save the day.NoSQL databases existed since 1960, but recently they have gained more popularity especially for providing the scaling feature.

The major difference between MongoDB and SQL Databases is the way of handling the data. In SQL databases, data is stored in tabular form of two-dimensional row-column structure while in MongoDB document model is followed, which allows storage of any type of data.

MongoDB Documents makes it easy for developers to map the data used in the application to its associated document in the database. While in SQL Database, creating a table with columns mapped to the object’s attributes in programming language is a little tedious.

When it comes to choosing a database, one of the biggest decisions is selecting a relational (SQL) or non-relational (NoSQL) data type structure. While both options are viable, but still there are certain key differences between the two and user chooses the option according to his requirements.


Indian Automotive Industry: A Review & Its Classification

Numerous innovation in the fields of engineering comprising engines, fuels, tires safety, societal infrastructure, manufacturing standards and sales & marketing etc impacted the growth of the automobile industry. 

Some researchers quote the first vehicles as “sail mounted carriages” derived by something else than animals or humans in the seventeen century. On the flip side, other believed initiation of automobile industry since the innovation of engine. The year 1876 witnessed a breakthrough technology “Four stroke internal combustion gasoline-fueled engine” innovated in Europe and America while invention in the areas of steering wheel, floor mounted accelerator and rubber tire in 19 century triggered the automotive industry because of ease of use. The man behind introduction of assembly line was Henry Ford which caused mass production to achieve economies in vehicle production. At the time of World War II, automobile manufacturers and weapons by pausing production of passenger vehicles. In post-World War II particularly during 1950s and 1960s, a wide variety of technological inventions like fiber glass bodies, good quality fuel with better compression ratio attract customer due to more comfortable vehicle and better look. 

Automobile industry is one of the largest production/assembly activity across the globe. The automotive demand has shown wide variation from very high demand to slow down in India and world as well. In the last three decades, numerous international automotive manufacturer moved in the country for manufacturing and sales of their vehicles in local market and as well as export to international customers. To deal with the global competition, the big name of the industries established their assembly plant in various parts of India which played a vital role in country economy and created new jobs in the bulk. Our economy is very much reliant upon the performance, sustainability and profitability of this important sector.  The current turnover of the automotive industry is around USD 26.2 billon. This huge global competitiveness is exerting immense pressure on the industries manufacturing management especially on Supply Chain Management to deal with cost stress although it is presumed globalization cause cost effectiveness, however there are lot many challenges such as logistic cost. 

INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY It was about 1897, first car ran in India while until 1930s, only few cars were directly imported. Indian automobile industry started raising since 1940s and Mahindra & Mahindra company was started by two brothers to trade under license from Willys. In a short time, the company established its branch to manufacture of light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and agricultural vehicles (tractors). However, Cars were carrying the tag of luxury till Japanese car manufacturers entered in the Indian market with the establishment of Maruti Udyog in the 1980s a joint ventures for manufacturing motorcycles and light commercial-vehicles, followed by numerous automobile manufacturers where Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra and Hindustan Motors are few, to mention. Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM) estimates that annual vehicle sales will be nearly 9 million by 2020 and India may witness the highest car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the roads.

ndian Automobile Industry Classification Indian automotive industry is producing a wide variety of vehicles e.g. Two and Three wheelers, passenger vehicles, light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles, agricultural vehicles (tractors and combines), construction machineries/vehicles and ancillary (component segment for all these categories). According to Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM) and Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), a modified classification of Indian automotive industry has been proposed in following.

Classification of Indian Automotive Industry



Fly ash brick are those bricks in which we used fly ash,lime or cement as raw material,by adding moderate gypsum and aggregates,after the mixture get prepared then we pressed in moulding, then through high temperature or normal pressure curing or natural curing methods.

Fly ash are divided into two categories,first one is autoclave fly ash brick and the second one is steam cured fly ash brick.In autoclaved fly ash bricks,they are cured at high temperature and pressure saturated vapors in autoclave. But in Steam cured fly ash bricks are cured in steam but under normal pressure conditions.

These both are similar in raw materials and forming,only different in curing methods,but they have very different final properties.
Autoclaved fly ash bricks are cured in saturated steam in more than 174.5˚C and 0.8Mpa pressure conditions,the inner active ingredients are reacted with each other sufficiently,thus the bricks could own high strength and stable properties.

But the steam cured fly ash brick in which the normal pressure condition will cause flaws happened on the walls during the construction.
The autoclaved fly ash brick usually have very high compressive strength, it could reach up to 15-20Mpa,at least reach 10Mpa, it can endures 15times continuous freeze-thaw cycles request.
Otherwise,fly ash is a hydrated material which has potential activity,the hydration reaction could happen again in damp environment during application,thus the inner structure of the bricks could become more and more compact,benefit for the strength improvement again.


1.Same number of Fly Ash Bricks will cover more area than clay bricks.

2. Fly Ash Bricks are High Fire Insulation.

3. Due to high strength of Fly Ash Bricks, practically no breakage occurs during transport of Fly Ash Bricks &use.

4.Due to uniform size of Fly Ash Bricks mortar required for joints and plaster requirement will be less up to 50%.

5.Lower water penetration so the seepage of water through bricks is considerably reduced.

6. In Fly Ash Bricks no need to backing coat of lime plaster, Gypsum plaster can be directly applied.

7.These Fly Ash Bricks do not require soaking in water for 24 hours. Sprinkling of water before using is sufficient. 



Robotics, in various forms, have been in the minds of humans since we were able to build Things.
You can see machines made by artisans trying to mimic human movements and behavior. Examples include the statues of Venice's San Marcos Clock Tower Hit the clock by the hour and the figures tell a story of the fifteenth century astronomical clock toward the Old Town Hall Tower in Prague. Sophisticated machines with repetitive movements from toys, simple types are other examples. In Hollywood, movies also portray robots and humanoids superior to humans. 

Humanoids are in principle robots and are designed and operated by the same basic concepts. The elements used in robots and robotics are actuators, sensors, vision systems and so on. Robot Rovers are no different usually has low degrees of freedom and usually moves in flight. Exoskeleton and Humanoid robots, walking machines and robots that mimic animals and insects may have several degrees of freedom (DOF) and special capabilities. However, the same The principles we learn about manipulators also apply to robot rovers, whether kinematics differential motions, dynamics or control.

Robots are very powerful elements in today's industry. They are capable of demonstrating many different tasks and activities are accurate and do not require general security and comfort elements needed by humans. However, this requires a lot of effort and many resources for the robot to function properly. Most companies made robots in the mid-1980s with only a few exceptions, there are only companies that make real industrial robots remained in the market (Adept, Staubli, Fanuc, Cuca, Epson, Motoman, Denso, Specialized robotic companies such as Fuji, and IS robotics, as well as Mako Surgical Corporation). Early entrepreneur predictions about the number of robots in the industry has never materialized because high expectations cannot be met current robots, as a result, have many thousands of robots in the industry working tirelessly and satisfactorily for the intended jobs, the robots are not overwhelmed in place of workers. They are used wherever they are useful. Like humans, robots can do Some things, but not others. They are designed correctly for the Intended  purposes, they are very useful and to be used. The subject of robotics has many different areas. Robots are never alone useful. These can be used in conjunction with other devices, peripherals and other manufacturers Machines. They are usually integrated into one system, which is designed as a whole do a thing or do an operation.

What is a robot?

If you combine a traditional robot manipulator with a crane, say, utility or you will notice that the towing vehicle is similar to the robot manipulator crane. Both have several links that are regularly attached to each other with joints, where each joint is moved by some kind of actuator. In both systems, the "hand" of the manipulator can be moved into space and placed in the desired workspace of the system. Each it can carry a certain load and is controlled by a central controller. However, one is called a robot and one is called a manipulator (or, in this case, a Crane). Similarly, material handling manipulators that move heavy objects in manufacturing plants look like robots, but they are not robots. The fundamental difference between both, the crane and the manipulator are controlled by a man and controls the actuators, while the robot manipulator is controlled by a running computer program. This difference between the two determines whether or not a device is simple manipulator or robot.

Generally, robots are designed and controlled Through a computer or similar device. The movements of the robot are controlled by a Computer supervised controller, which runs some kind of program. Therefore, if the program is changed, the robot's actions change accordingly. The idea is to have a device that can do many different things.  Therefore, the robot is designed much can be done based on the running program (s) by changing Program. This cannot be done without a simple manipulator (or crane) operator running all the time. Different countries have different standards for what is considered a robot. In the American standards require that the device, which is considered a robot, be easily reproduced. Therefore, manual handling equipment (devices with multiple degrees of freedom and Equipment operated by the operator) or fixed-range robots (devices controlled by hard stops) It is difficult to change the control actuator movements in a fixed sequence) are not considered robots. 

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