CAT ~ VA + QA - Last Minute Revision!!

Planned Revision Session for both VA and QA!!

@sawanbaing @aswinianand @Highway66 @aimonlyiim @chinki93 @mirnalika @Dark_Passenger @sav-9 @Huey

Todays goal. We must finish revision of Grammar based. Please post grammar rules along with examples if you know them. Question and their explanations. 

I can think of : 

Article errors 

Tense errors 

Modifier errors

Conjunction errors.

Subject - Verb agreement.

puys .. i have some problems with Pjs ... 

the thing is .. i have solved many pjs .. and now i get some instinct while solving the pj ... so practically speaking ... my approach to pj has changed much now ...!! at first i use to find links .. and then get to the answer .. and nw .. i read the options first .. and see which sentence is used in most of the options as the opening sentence .. then .. read that --> and then read the subsequent one .. and get the whole idea of the topic discussed in that pj ... then ofcourse find mandatory ones ... and mark correct option ...

but in pjs .. where every option starts with different opening sentence .. there my strategy fails ...!! i get stuck...!! 

what strategy u puys use while solving pjs ?? 

Thumb rules in Subject Verb agreement.

1)When two nouns are joined with help of "and" they are followed by pural verbs

e.g. Ram and Shyam are friends

2) When the nouns are being joined by "and" form complementary pair we use singular.

e.g. bread and butter, horse and carriage

3) When two nouns are joined with the help of parenthetical modifiers The verb agrees with the first noun

e.g. along with,together with, as well as, in addition to, etc

4) When the two singular nouns are joined with help of either/neither , nor/or, not only, but also, the verb is singular

5) Subjects governed with distributive adjectives are followed by singular verb

e.g. each, either, neither, every

6) When one singular and one plural are joined with neither/nor, either/or, not only but also the verb agrees with the noun which is closer

7)Following indefinite pronouns are followed by singular verbs and singular pronouns

e.g. everyone, someone, anyone, no one

8)When subject consists of two nouns in the form of 

x of y , the verb agrees with x.

9)A collective noun may be followed by a singular or plural verb depending on whether it is acting as single or divided unit 

e.g. jury

10) "The number of" takes singular verb e.g. The number of students appearing in these exams is increasing.  

"I" and "me"

most of us are confused which is used where. can any of you help? @Preeti_L @sav-9 @SJ411 @aimonlyiim 

PRONOUN:Nominative and Objective Cases

There are two pronominal cases: nominative (subject) and objective (object).
Subject: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they.

Object: me, you, him/her/it, us, you, them.

(Notice that the second person (both singular and plural) has only one form, you.)

The object case is used after verbs and prepositions:

We met her in a bookstore.

She went to school with us.

Be careful of objects that consist of a proper noun (name) + a pronoun:

The puppy looked across the table at Sarah and me.
These situations can seem confusing, but there is an easy method to tell which pronoun (nominative or objective) is required.
Just remove the noun from the sentence to see if it still makes sense. If it does (as in "The puppy looked across the table at me"), then you have selected the correct pronoun. If it does not (as in "The puppy looked across the table at I"), then you should go back and check whether you selected the correct case for the pronoun (in this case it is the object of a preposition, at, so it should be in the objective case).

The relative pronoun who also has an objective case form, whom:

I kicked the girl who tried to steal my coat. (I kicked the girl. She tried to steal my coat.)

I smiled at the girl whom I had kicked. (I smiled at the girl. I had kicked her.)

We use at to show a specific place or position.

For example:
Someone is at the door.
They are waiting at the bus stop.
I used to live at 51 Portland Street.

We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface.

For example:
The cat sat on the mat.
The satellite dish is on the roof.

We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc.

For example: 
I used to live on Portland Street.

We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded.

For example:
The dog is in the garden.
She is in a taxi. 
Put it in the box.

We also use in to show position within land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).

For example:
I used to live in Nottingham.

- See more at:

i know by this most of you must be aware of these techniques, but sharing Sagar Nikam sir's DI tricks and shortcuts especially for pie charts , this proved very useful to me , will keep on sharing more as I keep on revising from my inventory

IDIOM time :

Tongue-in-cheek: humor, not to be taken seriously.

Under the weather: Feeling ill or sick.

Up a blind alley: Going down a course of action that leads to a bad outcome.

Use Your Loaf: Use your head. Think smart.

Wag the Dog: A diversion away from something of greater importance.

Water Under The Bridge: Anything from the past that isn't significant or important anymore.

Wear Your Heart On Your Sleeve: To openly and freely express your emotions.

When It Rains, It Pours: when things go wrong, a lot of things go wrong at the same time.

When Pigs Fly : Something that will never ever happen.

Wild and Woolly: Uncultured and without laws.

Wine and Dine: When somebody is treated to an expensive meal.

Courtesy: @Highway66 sir


Incorrect: We live in village.
Correct: We live in a village. OR We live in the village.

Incorrect: She works in pub.
Correct: She works in a pub. OR She works in the pub.

A singular common noun (e.g. boy, girl, tree, country, teacher, village etc.) must have an article. A plural common noun can be used with or without an article.

Incorrect: He is best player in the team.
Correct: He is the best player in the team.

Incorrect: She is fastest runner.
Correct: She is the fastest runner.

The definite article the must be used with superlative adjectives.

Incorrect: The Paris is big city.
Correct: Paris is a big city.

Incorrect: I live in the Mumbai.
Correct: I live in Mumbai.

If the noun is proper it will take no article. Note that a proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing. Examples are: Sam, Mary, India, Paris, London etc.

Incorrect: The iron is a useful metal.
Correct: Iron is a useful metal.

Incorrect: The gold is yellow.
Correct: Gold is yellow.

Articles are not used with material nouns. Examples are: gold, silver, iron, wheat, rice etc.

Incorrect: We should not make noise.
Correct: We should not make a noise.

Incorrect: I have an urgent business.
Correct: I have urgent business. OR I have some urgent business.

Note these fixed expressions.

Incorrect: Do you sell eggs by kilo or by dozen?
Correct: Do you sell eggs by the kilo or by the dozen?

The is used in measuring expressions beginning with by.

When to use "in" and "at" for places.

For and since:

'For' should be used if the focus is on period and

'Since' should be used if referring to a particular point in the past


Sachin played cricket for 25 years

I have previous year CAT papers since 1990

Though the prepositions are small words, they are very important ones, and their correct usage is a test of your mastery of the language. This article explains the correct usage of some prepositions that often cause confusion.

Beside and besides

Students often get confused about the meaning and usage of these two words. Beside means 'by the side of' and besides means 'in addition to'.

The house was beside the river. (= by the side of the river) He stood beside me. (= by my side) He plays tennis besides (in addition to) basketball and football. Besides (in addition to) being a good speaker, he is also an excellent actor.

Since and for

This is another set of prepositions often confused by foreign students. Since refers to the starting point of an action. It means 'from a particular point of time in the past' and it should be used with the present perfect tense of the verb.

He has been absent since last Monday. (NOT He is absent since last Monday.) It has been raining continuously since yesterday morning. (NOT It is raining since yesterday morning.)

For is used to talk about duration. It refers to a period of time.

I have been waiting here for two hours. We have been living here for three years.

A common mistake is to use since when referring to a period of time. You must not say 'He has been absent since two days' or 'I have been studying since two hours.'

Between and among

We use between to say that somebody or something is between two or more clearly separate objects.

You have to choose between these two options. I stood between John and Peter. They marched up the aisle between the pillars. He shared his money between his wife, his daughter and his son.

Among is used with more than two people or things.

The British were able to conquer India because the Indian princes quarreled among themselves. The United Nations tries to maintain peace among the nations of the world.

By and with

By is used to refer to the doer of an action; with is used to refer to the instrument with which the action is done.

He was killed by his servant. He was killed with an axe. The tiger was shot by me with my new gun.

In and At

In is generally used to refer to large places - countries, districts, large cities etc. At is generally used to refer to small and unimportant places like villages, small towns etc.

We shall meet them at the club this evening. My brother lives at Mumbai.

This rule is not very rigidly followed now, and in is often used for small places too, though at is seldom used for big places.

On, in, at and by (time)

While speaking about time at indicates an exact point of time, on a more general point of time and in a period of time.

I shall be there at 4 pm. We set out at dawn. I was born on May 26. The postman brought this letter in the morning. I shall visit them in summer. It is very hot in the day and quite cold at night.

Note that 'at night' is an exception to this rule.

By is used to show the latest time at which an action will be finished. So it is usually used with the future tenses.

I shall be leaving by 6 o' clock. I hope to finish the work by the end of this year.

On and upon

On is generally used to talk about things at rest and upon to talk about things in motion.

He sat on a chair. He jumped upon his horse.

However, this rule is not rigidly followed now, and on is often used to talk about things in motion too.

In and within (time) In means at the end of a certain period; within means before the end of a certain period.

The spacecraft will reach the moon in three days. (= at the end of three days) The spacecraft will reach the moon within three days. (= before the end of three days) The loan should be repaid in a year. The loan should be repaid within a year.

Note that this distinction too is not always kept and in is often used for within.

Out of the options fill in the blank with the most appropriate one.

The patient................if he had been taken to the hospital in time.

1. could have been saved.2.could be saved 3. could save 4. had been saved

5. None of these.

Common Errors with Prepositions

Incorrect: He is ill since last week.

Correct: He has been ill since last week.

Incorrect: He has been working since two hours.

Correct: He has been working for two hours.

Incorrect: I have not played cricket since a long time.

Correct: I have not played cricket for a long time.


When reckoning from a particular date we use 'since'. Examples are since last Friday, since May, since morning, since July 8th. But note that we always use 'for' for a period. Examples are: for a week, for a long time, for two hours etc.

Incorrect: This paper is inferior than that.

Correct: This paper is inferior to that.

Incorrect: He is junior than me.

Correct: He is junior to me.

Incorrect: He is superior than you in strength.

Correct: He is superior to you in strength.


The comparatives senior, junior, superior, inferior etc., are followed by to, and not than.

Incorrect: He rides in a cycle.

Correct: He rides on a cycle.

Incorrect: He rides on a car.

Correct: He rides in a car.

Incorrect: He sat in a table.

Correct: He sat on a table.

Incorrect: The cat is in the roof.

Correct: The cat is on the roof.


Use 'on' when the meaning is clearly 'on top of'. For example, on a horse, on a bicycle, on a table, on the roof etc. Use in when 'on top of' is not appropriate. For example, in a car, in an airplane etc.

Incorrect: There was a match between team A against team B.

Correct: There was a match between team A and team B.

Incorrect: The meeting will be held between 4 pm to 6 pm.

Correct: The meeting will be held between 4 pm and 6 pm.


Between is followed by and, not to or against.

Incorrect: The First World War was fought during 1914 - 18.

Correct: The First World War was fought between 1914 and 1918.

Incorrect: There was a fight with John and Peter.

Correct: There was a fight between John and Peter.

Incorrect: England grew prosperous between Queen Victoria's reign.

Correct: England grew prosperous during Queen Victoria's reign.


Two events or people should be mentioned if you want to use between.

CAT - 08

Directions for questions 55 to 58: In each of the following questions there are sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence(s) or part(s) of sentence(s) that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage (including spelling, punctuation and logical consistency). Then, choose the most appropriate option.


A. In 1849, a poor Bavarian imigrant named Levi Strauss.

B. landed in San Francisco, California,

C. at the invitation of his brother-in-law David Stern

D. owner of dry goods business.

E. This dry goods business would later become known as Levi Strauss & Company.

(1) B only (2) B and C (3) A and B (4) A only (5) A, B and D

Solution:  Statement A is incorrect because the word immigrant has been mis-spelt as "imigrant" (with an "m.missing). Options 3, 4 and 5 can be eliminated.

We are left with only options 1(B only) and 2(B and C).

Statement C should have a comma at the end, after "David Stern".

Statement B is correct.

Statement D should be ,an owner of a dry goods business. (comma is missing before 'an')

Statement E can be corrected in at least two different ways. "This dry goods business would later be

known as ..." Or, "This dry goods business later became known as ..."(Omitted "would.).

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.


A. In response to the allegations and condemnation pouring in,

B. Nike implemented comprehensive changes in their labour policy.

C. Perhaps sensing the rising tide of global labour concerns,

D. from the public would become a prominent media issue,

E. Nike sought to be a industry leader in employee relations.

(1) D and E (2) D only (3) A and E (4) A and D (5) B, C and E


The sentence takes off correctly in statement A.

Statement B is incorrect because there is a pronoun agreement error. It should be, "Nike implemented comprehensive changes" in its (not their) labour policy. The possessive pronoun "its. should replace "their. as it refers to the antecedent "Nike" which is singular.

Statement C does not require the comma given at the end of the line. The sentence (C and D) can be

rephrased as, "Perhaps sensing that the rising tide of global labour concerns from the public would

become a prominent media issue..

It can be seen from this sentence that part D can be left unaltered and can be taken as correct.

The word "industry. begins with a vowel sound and hence the article "an. should be used and not "a..

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.


A. Charges and counter charges mean nothing

B. to the few million who have lost their home.

C. The nightmare is far from over, for the government

D. is still unable to reach hundreds who are marooned.

E. The death count have just begun.

(1) A only (2) C only (3) A and C (4) A, C and D (5) D only


Statements A and C are correct.

A million people (in B) would have lost their homes- not "home". Therefore, statement B is incorrect.

Statements D does not logically continue the idea started in C. Therefore it is incorrect.(Logical continuation is, hence, important)

Statement E is incorrect. There is a subject-verb agreement error here. In place of "The death count have just begun", it should be, "The death count has just begun.. "Death count., a singular subject, should take a singular verb (has).

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.


A. I did not know what to make of you.

B. Because you'd lived in India, I associate you more with my parents than with me.

C. And yet you were unlike my cousins in Calcutta, who seem so innocent and obedient when I visited


D. You were not curious about me in the least.

E. Although you did make effort to meet me.

(1) A only (2) A and B (3) A and E (4) D only (5) A and D

Statement B has tense inconsistency. "Lived is in past tense, hence, 'associate' in the same sentence should be associated. (In simple past as well).

Statement C again has tense inconsistency. The word seem should become seemed to go with ere. and visited in the same sentence.

Statement E is incorrect and we need to rephrase it. We may either change effort to efforts or change it to an effort.

Statements A and D are correct.

Hence, the correct answer is option 5.


Directions for Questions 63 to 65: In each question, there are five sentences or parts of sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence(s) or part(s) of sentence(s) that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage. Then, choose the most appropriate option.


A. When I returned to home, I began to read

B. everything I could get my hand on about Israel.

C. That same year Israel's Jewish Agency sent

D. a Shaliach a sort of recruiter to Minneapolis.

E. I became one of his most active devotees.

(1) C & E

(2) C only

(3) E only

(4) B, C & E

(5) C, D & E

Solution:  Statement A is incorrect because of the phrase, 'returned to home'. The correct usage is 'returned home'. Statement B is incorrect because the idiom is get one's hands on and not hand on. (Idiom error)

Statement C is correct. Statement D is incorrect because there should be a hyphen or a comma after a Shaliach. (a Shaliach - a sort of recruiter to Minnepolis.) "a sort of" though rather informal, is correct usage. Statement E is correct.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.


A. So once an economy is actually in recession,

B. The authorities can, in principle, move the economy

C. Out of slump - assuming hypothetically

D. That they know how to - by a temporary stimuli.

E. In the longer term, however, such policies have no affect on the overall behaviour of

the economy.

(1) A, B & E

(2) B, C & E

(3) C & D

(4) E only

(5) B only

Solution: Statement A is incorrect - The use of the word, 'so' is redundant and inappropriate.

(So and once, in the context are adverbs - one of them is enough).

Statement B is correct.

Statement C is incorrect because the use of 'assuming hypothetically' makes it redundant. One can either assume or hypothesize, but 'assuming hypothetically' is meaningless. Statement D is incorrect in the plural use of stimuli instead of stimulus.

Hence, the correct answer is option 5.


A. It is sometimes told that democratic

B. government originated in the city-states

C. of ancient Greece. Democratic ideals have been handed to us from that time.

D. In truth, however, this is an unhelpful assertion.

E. The Greeks gave us the word, hence did not provide us with a model.

(1) A, B & D

(2) B, C & D

(3) B & D

(4) B only

(5) D only

Solution Statement A is incorrect because the verb 'told' is incorrectly used. The verb

'said' should be used instead.

There is no error in statement B.

Statement C contains the incorrect idiom 'handed to us' instead of 'handed down to


Statement D is correct.

Statement E is incorrect because the word, 'hence' is used as a conjunction, whereas

it is an adverb. The use of a proper conjunction (e.g. and / but) will improve the


Hence the correct answer is option 3.

So we need to look into IDIOMs as well.

CAT - 06  à nothing from this

CAT - 05

Directions for Questions 53 to 56: Each question consists of four sentences on a topic.

Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Select the option that

indicates the grammatically correct and appropriate sentence(s).


A. When virtuoso teams begin their work, individuals are in and group consensus is


B. As project progresses, however, the individual stars harness themselves to the

product of the group.

C. Sooner or later, the members break through their own egocentrism and become

a plurality with single-minded focus on the goal.

D. In short, they morph into a powerful team with a shared identity.

(1) A & C

(2) A & D

(3) B & D

(4) A, C & D

Solution. Statements B and C are incorrect.

Statement B is incorrect because 'As project progresses' should be corrected to

"As the project progresses..." The (definite or indefinite) article is required as a


Statement C is incorrect in the phrase 'a plurality with single-minded focus' -

should be corrected to "a plurality with a single-minded focus..." The noun 'focus'

needs a determiner (definite/indefinite article) 'a focus' is correct. An adjective

(single-minded) breaks this order. 'A single-minded focus' like 'a beautiful car' is


Since statements B and C are incorrect, options 1, 3 and 4 are eliminated.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.


A. Large reductions in the ozone layer, which sits about 15-30 km above the Earth,

take place each- winter over the Polar regions, especially the Antarctic, as low

temperatures allow the formation of stratospheric clouds that assist chemical

reactions breaking down ozone.

B. Industrial chemicals containing chlorine and bromine have been blamed for

thinning the layer

C. because they attack the ozone molecules, making them to break apart.

D. Many an offending chemicals have now been banned.

E. It will still take several decades before these substances have disappeared from

the atmosphere.

(1) D only

(2) B & D

(3) A & D

(4) A & C

Sol: Statements B and C are incorrect. Statement B is incorrect because 'to break

apart' is incorrect idiom. It should be "making them break apart"- the verb 'make'

is not followed by an infinitive (to+verb). E.g. It makes me cry and not It makes

me to cry.

Statement C is incorrect in 'many an offending chemicals'. The correct versions

will be 'many offending chemicals (have)' or many an offending chemical (has)'.

This eliminates options 2 and 4. Statements A and D are both correct.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.


A. The balance of power will shift to the East as China and India evolve.

B. Rarely the economic ascent of two still relatively poor nations has been watched

with such a mixture of awe, opportunism, and trepidation.

C. Postwar era witnessed economic miracles in Japan and South Korea, but neither

was populous enough to power worldwide growth or change the game in a

complete spectrum of industries.

D. China and India, by contrast, possess the weight and dynamism to transform the

21st-century global economy.

(1) A, B & C

(2) A & D

(3) C

(4) C & D

Sol: B and C are incorrect.

B has to be corrected to "Rarely has the economic ..... been watched".

C is incorrect. 'Post war era' has to be corrected to 'The post war era' - 'era'

(noun needs a determiner).

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.


A. People have good reason to care about the welfare of animals.

B. Ever since Enlightenment, their treatment has been seen as a measure of

mankind's humanity.

C. It is no coincidence that William Wilberforce and Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton,

two leaders of the movement to abolish the slave trade, helped found the Royal

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1820s.

D. An increasing number of people go further: mankind has a duty not to cause pain

to animals that have the capacity to suffer.

(1) A & D

(2) B

(3) A & C

(4) C & D

Sol: Statements B and C are incorrect.

Statement B should read 'Ever since the Enlightenment...' (the Enlightenment: a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and  educational doctrine).

Statement C should read as ".... in the 1820s"

Options 2, 3 and 4 are eliminated.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

@pulkit_malik I, me my usage


The examples given have 1,2,3,4,5 numbering according to table

I guess everyone is here. Lets start sharing our doubts and mock question which we got wrong.