# GMAT Critical Reasoning Discussions

I also thought E. But the answer given is 'D'. The question is from 1000CRs. I am confused on answer choice 'D'.

Even i thought it was E. can someone explkaing why it's D. D doesn't seem to be the right answer.

Plz help me out with these...

When people evade income taxes by not declaring taxable incomea vicious cycle resultsTax evasion forces lawmakers to raise income tax ratesWhich causes the tax burden on nonevading taxpayers to become heavier. Thisin turnencourages even more taxpayers to evade income taxes by hiding taxable income
The vicious cycle described above could not result unless which of the following were true?
(A) An Increase in tax rates tends to function as an incentive for taxpayers to try to increase their pretax incomes
(B) Some methods for detecting tax evaders, and thus recovering some tax revenue lost through evasionbring in more than they costbut their success rate varies from year to year.
(C) When lawmakers establish income tax rates in order to generate a certain level of revenue, they do not allow adequately for revenue that will be lost through evasion
(D) No one who routinely hides some taxable income can be induced by a lowering of tax rates to stop hiding such income unless fines for evaders are raised at the same time
(E) Taxpayers do not differ from each other with respect to the rate of taxation that will cause them to evade taxes
Because postage rates are risingHome Decorator magazine plans to maximize its profits by reducing by one-half the number of issues it publishes each yearThe quality of articlesthe number of articles published per year, and the subscription price will not changeMarket research shows that neither subscribers nor advertisers will be lost if the magazine's plan is instituted
Which of the followingif trueprovides the strongest evidence that the magazine's profits are likely to decline if the plan is instituted?
(A) With the new postage ratesa typical issue under the proposed plan would cost about one-third more to mail than a typical current issue would
(B) The majority of the magazine's subscribers are less concerned about a possible reduction in the quantity of the magazine's articles than about a possible loss of the current high quality of its articles
(C) Many of the magazine's long-time subscribers would continue their subscriptions even if the subscription price were increased
(D) Most of the advertisers that purchase advertising space In the magazine will continue to spend the same amount on advertising per issue as they have in the past
(E) Production costs for the magazine are expected to remain stable

There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical proceduresup to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies
To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical proceduresit would be most important to establish which of the following?
(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure(other than hysterectomies prostatectomiesand tonsillectomies)that are often performed unnecessarily
(D) For certain surgical proceduresit is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded
(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomiesprostatectomiesand tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general

Can someone help me with following question?

In order to withstand tidal currents, juvenile horseshoe crabs frequently burrow in the sand. Such burrowing discourages barnacles from clinging to their shells. When fully grown, however, the crabs can readily withstand tidal currents without burrowing, and thus they acquire substantial populations of barnacles. Surprisingly, in areas where tidal currents are very weak, juvenile horseshoe crabs are found not to have significant
barnacle populations, even though they seldom burrow.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?

A. Tidal currents do not themselves dislodge barnacles from the shells of horseshoe crabs.
B. Barnacles most readily attach themselves to horseshoe crabs in areas where tidal currents are weakest.
C. The strength of the tidal currents in a given location varies widely over the course of a day.
D. A very large barnacle population can significantly decrease the ability of a horseshoe crab to find food.
E. Until they are fully grown, horseshoe crabs shed their shells and grow new ones several times a year.

Plz help me out with these...

When people evade income taxes by not declaring taxable incomea vicious cycle resultsTax evasion forces lawmakers to raise income tax ratesWhich causes the tax burden on nonevading taxpayers to become heavier. Thisin turnencourages even more taxpayers to evade income taxes by hiding taxable income
The vicious cycle described above could not result unless which of the following were true?
(A) An Increase in tax rates tends to function as an incentive for taxpayers to try to increase their pretax incomes
(B) Some methods for detecting tax evaders, and thus recovering some tax revenue lost through evasionbring in more than they costbut their success rate varies from year to year.
(C) When lawmakers establish income tax rates in order to generate a certain level of revenue, they do not allow adequately for revenue that will be lost through evasion
(D) No one who routinely hides some taxable income can be induced by a lowering of tax rates to stop hiding such income unless fines for evaders are raised at the same time
(E) Taxpayers do not differ from each other with respect to the rate of taxation that will cause them to evade taxes
Because postage rates are risingHome Decorator magazine plans to maximize its profits by reducing by one-half the number of issues it publishes each yearThe quality of articlesthe number of articles published per year, and the subscription price will not changeMarket research shows that neither subscribers nor advertisers will be lost if the magazine's plan is instituted
Which of the followingif trueprovides the strongest evidence that the magazine's profits are likely to decline if the plan is instituted?
(A) With the new postage ratesa typical issue under the proposed plan would cost about one-third more to mail than a typical current issue would
(B) The majority of the magazine's subscribers are less concerned about a possible reduction in the quantity of the magazine's articles than about a possible loss of the current high quality of its articles
(C) Many of the magazine's long-time subscribers would continue their subscriptions even if the subscription price were increased
(D) Most of the advertisers that purchase advertising space In the magazine will continue to spend the same amount on advertising per issue as they have in the past
(E) Production costs for the magazine are expected to remain stable

There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical proceduresup to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies
To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical proceduresit would be most important to establish which of the following?
(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure(other than hysterectomies prostatectomiesand tonsillectomies)that are often performed unnecessarily
(D) For certain surgical proceduresit is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded
(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomiesprostatectomiesand tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general

A
D
B
Can someone help me with following question?

In order to withstand tidal currents, juvenile horseshoe crabs frequently burrow in the sand. Such burrowing discourages barnacles from clinging to their shells. When fully grown, however, the crabs can readily withstand tidal currents without burrowing, and thus they acquire substantial populations of barnacles. Surprisingly, in areas where tidal currents are very weak, juvenile horseshoe crabs are found not to have significant
barnacle populations, even though they seldom burrow.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?

A. Tidal currents do not themselves dislodge barnacles from the shells of horseshoe crabs.
B. Barnacles most readily attach themselves to horseshoe crabs in areas where tidal currents are weakest.
C. The strength of the tidal currents in a given location varies widely over the course of a day.
D. A very large barnacle population can significantly decrease the ability of a horseshoe crab to find food.
E. Until they are fully grown, horseshoe crabs shed their shells and grow new ones several times a year.

E All the way.

Guys try these..

1) Codex Berinensis, a Florentine copy of an ancient Roman medical treatise, is undated but contains clues to
when it was produced. Its first eighty pages are by a single copyist, but the remaining twenty pages are by three
different copyists, which indicate some significant disruption. Since a letter in handwriting identified as that of the
fourth copyist mentions a plague that killed many people in Florence in 1148, Codex Berinensis was probably
produced in that year.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis that codex Berinensis was produced in
1148?
(A) Other than Codex Berinensis, there are no known samples of the handwriting of the first three copyists.
(B) According to the account by the fourth copyists, the plague went on for ten months.
(C) A scribe would be able to copy a page of text the size and style of Codex Berinensis in a day.
(D) There was only one outbreak of plague in Florence in the 1100s.
(E) The number of pages of Codex Berinnesis produced by a single scribe becomes smaller with each
successive change of copyist.

2) Studies have shown that elderly people who practice a religion are much more likely to die immediately after an
important religious holiday period than immediately before one. Researchers have concluded that the will to live
can prolong life, at least for short periods of time.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the researchers conclusion?
(A) Elderly people who practice a religion are less likely to die immediately before or during an important
religious holiday than at any other time of the year.
(B) Elderly people who practice a religion appear to experience less anxiety at the prospect of dying than do
other people.
(C) Some elderly people who do practice a religion live much longer than most elderly people who do not.
(D) Most elderly people who participate in religious holidays have different reasons for participating than young
people do.
(E) Many religions have important holidays in the spring and fall, seasons with the lowest death rates for elderly
people.

Please post the explanations too, coz solving a CR problem without knowing the expln is of no help...

Sandy,

I think the answer to the first one should be (D) as (A), (C), (E) can be easily eliminated as they have no reference or hint as to when the book might have been completed... Also, (B) can't be the answer as lasting of plague for 10 months might not necessarily refer to the one by which copyists died, it might also refer to some other Plague which occured in the past, and (B) doesn't rule out two or possibly more outbreaks which the fourth or potentially all copyists might have survived.... 😃 I am giving so many explanations but I don't know whether the answer is right...

The second one...the answer should be (A) as (B), (C), (E) can be eliminated easily becs they go too far than the information in the extract itself. (E) if true rather weakens the conclusion than strengthen it, thus I guess it's (A)...

Sandy don't make me wait long...

Tell me if the answers and explanations are correct.

Cheers,
_Abhi.

Sandy,

I think the answer to the first one should be (D) as (A), (C), (E) can be easily eliminated as they have no reference or hint as to when the book might have been completed... Also, (B) can't be the answer as lasting of plague for 10 months might not necessarily refer to the one by which copyists died, it might also refer to some other Plague which occured in the past, and (B) doesn't rule out two or possibly more outbreaks which the fourth or potentially all copyists might have survived.... 😃 I am giving so many explanations but I don't know whether the answer is right...

The second one...the answer should be (A) as (B), (C), (E) can be eliminated easily becs they go too far than the information in the extract itself. (E) if true rather weakens the conclusion than strengthen it, thus I guess it's (A)...

Sandy don't make me wait long...

Tell me if the answers and explanations are correct.

Cheers,
_Abhi.

Absolutely perfecto!!!

You are getting better man. Correct answers and correct explns. Below is the OA and OE.

1) The passage points out that the changes in copyists indicate that something prevented the first three copyists
from completing the work. The passage then identifies this disruptive factor as the plague of 1148, thus dating
the production of the Codex. The question asks you to identify information that would support this dating.
Choice D is the best answer because if there had been other outbreaks of plague in the relevant period, one of
these, instead of the plague of 1148, might have disrupted the manuscripts production. This information
therefore supports the hypothesis.
Choice A is incorrect since other documents with handwriting by any of the first three copyists might help in
establishing a date for the Codex, but the absence of this evidence provides no additional support for the 1148
dating. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect for the reason that information about the duration of the plague, the
length of time it took to produce the Codex, and the length of time each scribe worked on the Codex cannot,
without considerable further data, provide evidence for or against the 1148 dating.

2) According to the passage, the death rate among elderly people who practice a religion is higher after an
important religious holiday than before. From this fact researchers have concluded that people can prolong their
lives by willpower, presumably thinking that such people can hold off death long enough to enable them to
experience the holiday. You are asked to find a fact that supports the researchers conclusion.
Choice A is the correct answer. The fact that before and during an important religious holiday the death rate is
lower than usual is crucial additional information that helps to support the idea that for the duration of the holiday
people succeed in holding of death, and hence it helps to support the researchers conclusion.
Choice B is incorrect since this information applies to all times of the year, not just to holiday times, and so
provides no support for the conclusion. Choice C is irrelevant because the researchers conclusion is about what
can affect the precise time of a persons death, not how long people live overall. Choice D is incorrect; the fact
that there is some difference in motivation gives no particular reason to think that the motivation can have the
effect that the researchers claim. The researchers conclusion is based on a striking pattern of death rates over
the range of a few days. Therefore, the general seasonal information provided by choices E lends no support to
their conclusion.

1) The earliest Mayan pottery found at Colha, in Belize, is about 3,000 years old. Recently, however, 4,500-year-oold stone agricultural implements were unearthed at colha. These implements resemble Mayan
stone implements of a much later period, also found at Colha. Moreover, the implements designs are strikingly
different from the designs of stone implements produced by other cultures known to have inhabited the area in
prehistoric times. Therefore, there were surely Mayan settlements in Colha 4,500 years ago.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument/
(A) Ceramic ware is not known to have been used by the Maya to make agricultural implements.
(B) Carbon dating of corn pollen in Colha indicates that agriculture began there around 4,500 years ago.
(C) Archaeological evidence indicates that some of the oldest stone implements found at Colha were used to cut
away vegetation after controlled burning of trees to open areas of swampland for cultivation.
(D) Successor cultures at a given site often adopt the style of agricultural implements used by earlier inhabitants
of the same site.
(E) Many religious and social institutions of the Mayan people who inhabited Colha 3,000 years ago relied on a
highly developed system of agricultural symbols.

2) Near Chicago a newly built hydroponic spinach factuory, a completely controlled environment for growing
spinach, produces on 1 acre of floor space what it takes 100 acres of fields to produce. Expenses, especially for
electricity, are high ,hwoever, and the spinach produced costs about four times as much as washed California
field spinach, the spinach commonly sold throughout the United States.
Which of the following, if true, best supports a projection that the spinach-growing facility near Chicago will be
profitable?
(A) Once the operators of the facility are experienced, they will be able to cut operating expenses by about 25
percent.
(B) There is virtually no scope for any further reduction in the cost per pound for California field spinach.
(C) Unlike washed field spinach, the hydroponically grown spinach is untainted by any pesticides or herbicides
and thus will sell at exceptionally herbicides an thus will sell at exceptionally high prices to such customers
as health food restaurants.
(D) Since spinach is a crop that ships relatively well, the market for the hydroponically grown spinach is no more
limited to the Chicago area than the market for California field spinach is to California.
(E) A second hydroponics facility is being built in Canada, taking advantage of inexpensive electricity and high
vegetable prices.

Answer to the 1st one should be D. For the 2nd one is it C, I have slight confusion between C and B though C seems to be better.

Will post the explainations once you confirm the answers................

(Don't post the book explainations initially)

Answer to the 1st one should be D. For the 2nd one is it C, I have slight confusion between C and B though C seems to be better.

Will post the explainations once you confirm the answers................

(Don't post the book explainations initially)

The answers are right. C for the second one.

1. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinsons poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnsons own, more faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinsons often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.

Which of the following best summarizes the authors main point?

(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinsons early editors for their distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions.
(B) Johnsons use of the dash in his text of Dickinsons poetry misleads readers about the poets intentions.
(C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published, virtually any attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions.
(D) Although Johnsons attempt to produce a more faithful text of Dickinsons poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient thoroughness
(E) Dickinsons editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal adequately with the problem of deciphering Dickinsons handwritten manuscripts

2. When people predict that certain result will not take place unless a certain action is taken, they believe that they have learned that the prediction is correct when the action is taken and the result occurs. On reflection, however, it often becomes clear that the result admits of more than one interpretation.

Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?

(A) Judging the success of an action requires specifying the goal of the action.
(B) Judging which action to take after a prediction is made requires knowing about other actions that have been successful in similar past situations.
(C) Learning whether a certain predictive strategy is good requires knowing the result using that strategy through several trials.
(D) Distinguishing a correct prediction and effective action from an incorrect prediction and ineffective action is often impossible.
(E) Making a successful prediction requires knowing the facts about the context of that prediction.

1) The earliest Mayan pottery found at Colha, in Belize, is about 3,000 years old. Recently, however, 4,500-year-oold stone agricultural implements were unearthed at colha. These implements resemble Mayan
stone implements of a much later period, also found at Colha. Moreover, the implements' designs are strikingly
different from the designs of stone implements produced by other cultures known to have inhabited the area in
prehistoric times. Therefore, there were surely Mayan settlements in Colha 4,500 years ago.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument/
(A) Ceramic ware is not known to have been used by the Maya to make agricultural implements.
(B) Carbon dating of corn pollen in Colha indicates that agriculture began there around 4,500 years ago.
(C) Archaeological evidence indicates that some of the oldest stone implements found at Colha were used to cut
away vegetation after controlled burning of trees to open areas of swampland for cultivation.
(D) Successor cultures at a given site often adopt the style of agricultural implements used by earlier inhabitants
of the same site.
(E) Many religious and social institutions of the Mayan people who inhabited Colha 3,000 years ago relied on a
highly developed system of agricultural symbols.

2) Near Chicago a newly built hydroponic spinach "factuory," a completely controlled environment for growing
spinach, produces on 1 acre of floor space what it takes 100 acres of fields to produce. Expenses, especially for
electricity, are high ,hwoever, and the spinach produced costs about four times as much as washed California
field spinach, the spinach commonly sold throughout the United States.
Which of the following, if true, best supports a projection that the spinach-growing facility near Chicago will be
profitable?
(A) Once the operators of the facility are experienced, they will be able to cut operating expenses by about 25
percent.
(B) There is virtually no scope for any further reduction in the cost per pound for California field spinach.
(C) Unlike washed field spinach, the hydroponically grown spinach is untainted by any pesticides or herbicides
and thus will sell at exceptionally herbicides an thus will sell at exceptionally high prices to such customers
as health food restaurants.
(D) Since spinach is a crop that ships relatively well, the market for the hydroponically grown spinach is no more
limited to the Chicago area than the market for California field spinach is to California.
(E) A second hydroponics facility is being built in Canada, taking advantage of inexpensive electricity and high
vegetable prices.

For the 1st one D is right becoz if successive cultures adopt agricultural styles used by earlier cultures then it is possible that Mayan culture adopted the style of agricultural tools which some other culture used 1500 years before them (4500-3000) hence it tends to weaken the conclusion that Mayan culture existed 4500 years ago. A is wrong because we can't assume that Mayan pottery was made of Ceramic only (no mention of word ceramic anywhere), B if at all is true will slightly strengthen, the argument others are out of scope

For 2nd question, it should be C because it highlights the specific need for Chicago spinach or a specific market where Chicago spinach will dominate california spinach to an extent that prices will be of little importance "exceptionally high prices, can be charged" hence chicago spinach should be profitable, offcourse anyone can counter the argument if lets say that only 10-15 health restaurents exist whose demand even at 100% capacity is very less, but this option seems to be the best

A can be the answer but does not seem to be as strong as C, B will not have any affect because we are concerned with profits of chicago spinach and not cost of california spinach (anyways only the area of cultivation has been said to be the less for chicago, so we can assume that for producing similar qty of spinach california should cost less, but that does not have any bearing on profits of chicago), D is irelevant for comparison purposes and E is out of scope

I may be wrong but this what i felt , finally whatever you feel does not matter as long as the answer is right

Regards
1. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinsons poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnsons own, more faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinsons often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.

Which of the following best summarizes the authors main point?

(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinsons early editors for their distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions.

2. When people predict that certain result will not take place unless a certain action is taken, they believe that they have learned that the prediction is correct when the action is taken and the result occurs. On reflection, however, it often becomes clear that the result admits of more than one interpretation.

Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?

(E) Making a successful prediction requires knowing the facts about the context of that prediction.

P.S:The highlighted ones r the ones according to me.
1. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinson's poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnson's own, more faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinson's often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.

Which of the following best summarizes the author's main point?

(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinson's early editors for their distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions.
(B) Johnson's use of the dash in his text of Dickinson's poetry misleads readers about the poet's intentions.
(C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published, virtually any attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions.
(D) Although Johnson's attempt to produce a more faithful text of Dickinson's poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient thoroughness
(E) Dickinson's editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal adequately with the problem of deciphering Dickinson's handwritten manuscripts

2. When people predict that certain result will not take place unless a certain action is taken, they believe that they have learned that the prediction is correct when the action is taken and the result occurs. On reflection, however, it often becomes clear that the result admits of more than one interpretation.

Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?

(A) Judging the success of an action requires specifying the goal of the action.
(B) Judging which action to take after a prediction is made requires knowing about other actions that have been successful in similar past situations.
(C) Learning whether a certain predictive strategy is good requires knowing the result using that strategy through several trials.
(D) Distinguishing a correct prediction and effective action from an incorrect prediction and ineffective action is often impossible.
(E) Making a successful prediction requires knowing the facts about the context of that prediction.

Not sure, but is it C

Will post the explainations later if my asnwers are correct,

thanks

@vikram_k51 and shrp17

@vikram_k51 and shrp17

E
D

@ znaamed

For 2. option D is correct for 1. it's not E

@ all

please provide short explanations for your answers. These are some of the tricky CRs that have been discussed on various other forums.

1. B

2. D

1. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinsons poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnsons own, more faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinsons often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.

Which of the following best summarizes the authors main point?

(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinsons early editors for their distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions.
(B) Johnsons use of the dash in his text of Dickinsons poetry misleads readers about the poets intentions.
(C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published, virtually any attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions.
(D) Although Johnsons attempt to produce a more faithful text of Dickinsons poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient thoroughness
(E) Dickinsons editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal adequately with the problem of deciphering Dickinsons handwritten manuscripts

2. When people predict that certain result will not take place unless a certain action is taken, they believe that they have learned that the prediction is correct when the action is taken and the result occurs. On reflection, however, it often becomes clear that the result admits of more than one interpretation.

Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?

(A) Judging the success of an action requires specifying the goal of the action.
(B) Judging which action to take after a prediction is made requires knowing about other actions that have been successful in similar past situations.
(C) Learning whether a certain predictive strategy is good requires knowing the result using that strategy through several trials.
(D) Distinguishing a correct prediction and effective action from an incorrect prediction and ineffective action is often impossible.
(E) Making a successful prediction requires knowing the facts about the context of that prediction.