The Iraqi Imbroglio

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Conflict with Kuwait Meanwhile, Hussein had to grapple with a long-standing frontier dispute with Kuwait as well as with a war debt estimated at more than $80 billion, perhaps more than half of which was owed to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Because ...
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pearl Says
C'mon folks! Wasn't the passage informative? Might have been boring but u must be prepared for the most boring ones in CAT> This was just an example!

Hey, if the post was meant to be informative alone, dont we have a thread for such links? Somwhere in the prepartion section.

If you planned to have a debate on the rationality of Kuwait takeover here, well, Im game. But no one doubts that it was a fiasco. Do we?
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C'mon folks! Wasn't the passage informative? Might have been boring but u must be prepared for the most boring ones in CAT> This was just an example!

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Spiderman Says
why is this under exam resorces? is this some kind of RC passage ? :)


what else could it be spidey........... though it wud never come in cat........... bcas v never have toread to answer questions

lokesh
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why is this under exam resorces? is this some kind of RC passage ? 😃

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Conflict with Kuwait
Meanwhile, Hussein had to grapple with a long-standing frontier dispute with Kuwait as well as with a war debt estimated at more than $80 billion, perhaps more than half of which was owed to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Because the war was considered a defensive action against the spread of the Islamic Revolution to Iraq and other gulf countries, Hussein took it for granted that the debt would be forgiven. He even expected the gulf countries to finance his reconstruction program as the United States had financed the reconstruction of western Europe through the Marshall Plan. To his surprise, he found that not only did the gulf countries refuse to forgive the debt, but they went so far as to increase their OPEC oil production quotas, resulting in a drop in oil prices that considerably reduced Iraq's income. Suspecting that the increase in oil production was prompted by Western pressure, Hussein criticized Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates for undermining his position, and he brought the matter to the attention of OPEC. The oil price for 1990 was raised, but suspicion and lack of cooperation still prevailed.There were, however, other reasons for disagreement. Iraq was suspected by most gulf countries to have political ambitions, possibly including domination over some of the countries in the region. More specifically, Iraq held that it had historical claim to Kuwait's sovereignty dating back to 1871. In that year Midhat Pasa, the Ottoman governor of Baghdad, in cooperation with Sheikh Abd-Allah as-Sabah, ruler of Kuwait, sent an expedition to occupy Al-Hasa (Al-Ahsa), a coastal district lying to the south of Kuwait. In recognition of his cooperation, Abd-Allah was appointed an Ottoman qa'im-maqai (subgovernor), and Kuwait became a district attached to Basra, then an Ottoman province. In 1899 Sheikh Mubarak, Abd-Allah's successor, entered into a secret agreement with Britain under which Britain promised to protect Kuwait. Thus Kuwait, though still nominally an Ottoman district, came under British protection. This anomalous status was recognized by both the Ottoman and British governments under the British-Ottoman Convention concluded in 1913, but the convention was never ratified.After World War I the Ottoman Empire was dismembered. When British protection of Kuwait was withdrawn in 1961, Iraq (independent of British control since 1932) claimed sovereignty over its territory on the ground that it had been a part of the Basra province since 1871. Iraq's historical claim had no foundation in law, as Turkey had already relinquished its sovereignty over the Arab countries under the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) to "the parties concerned," which was construed to mean either the people of Kuwait or Britain (or perhaps both, jointly). When Britain recognized Kuwait's independence in 1961, Kuwait became ipso jure a sovereign state, recognized by several other states, including Iraq: in 1963 both countries recognized each other's independence and exchanged diplomatic relations.Apart from its claim to Kuwait's sovereignty, Iraq has often raised the corollary question of the borders between the two countries. When Kuwait passed under British protection, the islands of Warbah and Bubiyan and other small islands in the gulf had never been within its perimeter, as they belonged to the Ottoman province of Basra. In 1913 the borders of Kuwait were enlarged to include Warbah, Bubiyan, and the other islands under the unratified British-Ottoman Convention. When Iraq was under British control, notes dealing with the border issue were exchanged, but they were never ratified by Iraq in accordance with the Iraqi constitution. In 1963 a Kuwaiti delegation, headed by the crown prince and the prime minister, arrived in Baghdad and came to an agreement with Iraq's prime minister. This agreement affirmed Kuwait's independence and settled the border issue. Although both prime ministers signed the agreement, confirming recognition of Kuwait's independence, the agreement was not ratified by the Iraqi president to validate the de facto frontiers between the two countries in accordance with Iraq's constitutional procedure. Several attempts were made to resolve the frontier issue, but no meeting of the minds seems to have been reached.The Iranian revolution of 1979, which led to the Iran-Iraq War, altered the balance of power in the gulf region to a considerable degree. After the war, when the Iraqi government began to feel the need for the strategic islands of Warbah and Bubiyan, located at the head of the gulf, it urged Kuwait to resolve the border issue, but no agreement was reached. Since negotiations had failed to produce a solution, Saddam Hussein decided to settle these issues by force.

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