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Robotics, in various forms, have been in the minds of humans since we were able to build Things.
You can see machines made by artisans trying to mimic human movements and behavior. Examples include the statues of Venice's San Marcos Clock Tower Hit the clock by the hour and the figures tell a story of the fifteenth century astronomical clock toward the Old Town Hall Tower in Prague. Sophisticated machines with repetitive movements from toys, simple types are other examples. In Hollywood, movies also portray robots and humanoids superior to humans.
Humanoids are in principle robots and are designed and operated by the same basic concepts. The elements used in robots and robotics are actuators, sensors, vision systems and so on. Robot Rovers are no different usually has low degrees of freedom and usually moves in flight. Exoskeleton and Humanoid robots, walking machines and robots that mimic animals and insects may have several degrees of freedom (DOF) and special capabilities. However, the same The principles we learn about manipulators also apply to robot rovers, whether kinematics differential motions, dynamics or control.
Robots are very powerful elements in today's industry. They are capable of demonstrating many different tasks and activities are accurate and do not require general security and comfort elements needed by humans. However, this requires a lot of effort and many resources for the robot to function properly. Most companies made robots in the mid-1980s with only a few exceptions, there are only companies that make real industrial robots remained in the market (Adept, Staubli, Fanuc, Cuca, Epson, Motoman, Denso, Specialized robotic companies such as Fuji, and IS robotics, as well as Mako Surgical Corporation). Early entrepreneur predictions about the number of robots in the industry has never materialized because high expectations cannot be met current robots, as a result, have many thousands of robots in the industry working tirelessly and satisfactorily for the intended jobs, the robots are not overwhelmed in place of workers. They are used wherever they are useful. Like humans, robots can do Some things, but not others. They are designed correctly for the Intended purposes, they are very useful and to be used. The subject of robotics has many different areas. Robots are never alone useful. These can be used in conjunction with other devices, peripherals and other manufacturers Machines. They are usually integrated into one system, which is designed as a whole do a thing or do an operation.
What is a robot?
If you combine a traditional robot manipulator with a crane, say, utility or you will notice that the towing vehicle is similar to the robot manipulator crane. Both have several links that are regularly attached to each other with joints, where each joint is moved by some kind of actuator. In both systems, the "hand" of the manipulator can be moved into space and placed in the desired workspace of the system. Each it can carry a certain load and is controlled by a central controller. However, one is called a robot and one is called a manipulator (or, in this case, a Crane). Similarly, material handling manipulators that move heavy objects in manufacturing plants look like robots, but they are not robots. The fundamental difference between both, the crane and the manipulator are controlled by a man and controls the actuators, while the robot manipulator is controlled by a running computer program. This difference between the two determines whether or not a device is simple manipulator or robot.
Generally, robots are designed and controlled Through a computer or similar device. The movements of the robot are controlled by a Computer supervised controller, which runs some kind of program. Therefore, if the program is changed, the robot's actions change accordingly. The idea is to have a device that can do many different things. Therefore, the robot is designed much can be done based on the running program (s) by changing Program. This cannot be done without a simple manipulator (or crane) operator running all the time. Different countries have different standards for what is considered a robot. In the American standards require that the device, which is considered a robot, be easily reproduced. Therefore, manual handling equipment (devices with multiple degrees of freedom and Equipment operated by the operator) or fixed-range robots (devices controlled by hard stops) It is difficult to change the control actuator movements in a fixed sequence) are not considered robots.
FLY ASH BRICK
Fly ash brick are those bricks in which we used fly ash,lime or cement as raw material,by adding moderate gypsum and aggregates,after the mixture get prepared then we pressed in moulding, then through high temperature or normal pressure curing or natural curing methods.
Fly ash are divided into two categories,first one is autoclave fly ash brick and the second one is steam cured fly ash brick.In autoclaved fly ash bricks,they are cured at high temperature and pressure saturated vapors in autoclave. But in Steam cured fly ash bricks are cured in steam but under normal pressure conditions.
These both are similar in raw materials and forming,only different in curing methods,but they have very different final properties.
Autoclaved fly ash bricks are cured in saturated steam in more than 174.5˚C and 0.8Mpa pressure conditions,the inner active ingredients are reacted with each other sufficiently,thus the bricks could own high strength and stable properties.
But the steam cured fly ash brick in which the normal pressure condition will cause flaws happened on the walls during the construction.
The autoclaved fly ash brick usually have very high compressive strength, it could reach up to 15-20Mpa,at least reach 10Mpa, it can endures 15times continuous freeze-thaw cycles request.
Otherwise,fly ash is a hydrated material which has potential activity,the hydration reaction could happen again in damp environment during application,thus the inner structure of the bricks could become more and more compact,benefit for the strength improvement again.
FLY ASH BRICKS ADVANTAGES
1.Same number of Fly Ash Bricks will cover more area than clay bricks.
2. Fly Ash Bricks are High Fire Insulation.
3. Due to high strength of Fly Ash Bricks, practically no breakage occurs during transport of Fly Ash Bricks &use.
4.Due to uniform size of Fly Ash Bricks mortar required for joints and plaster requirement will be less up to 50%.
5.Lower water penetration so the seepage of water through bricks is considerably reduced.
6. In Fly Ash Bricks no need to backing coat of lime plaster, Gypsum plaster can be directly applied.
7.These Fly Ash Bricks do not require soaking in water for 24 hours. Sprinkling of water before using is sufficient.
Indian Automotive Industry: A Review & Its Classification
Numerous innovation in the fields of engineering comprising engines, fuels, tires safety, societal infrastructure, manufacturing standards and sales & marketing etc impacted the growth of the automobile industry.
Some researchers quote the first vehicles as “sail mounted carriages” derived by something else than animals or humans in the seventeen century. On the flip side, other believed initiation of automobile industry since the innovation of engine. The year 1876 witnessed a breakthrough technology “Four stroke internal combustion gasoline-fueled engine” innovated in Europe and America while invention in the areas of steering wheel, floor mounted accelerator and rubber tire in 19 century triggered the automotive industry because of ease of use. The man behind introduction of assembly line was Henry Ford which caused mass production to achieve economies in vehicle production. At the time of World War II, automobile manufacturers and weapons by pausing production of passenger vehicles. In post-World War II particularly during 1950s and 1960s, a wide variety of technological inventions like fiber glass bodies, good quality fuel with better compression ratio attract customer due to more comfortable vehicle and better look.
Automobile industry is one of the largest production/assembly activity across the globe. The automotive demand has shown wide variation from very high demand to slow down in India and world as well. In the last three decades, numerous international automotive manufacturer moved in the country for manufacturing and sales of their vehicles in local market and as well as export to international customers. To deal with the global competition, the big name of the industries established their assembly plant in various parts of India which played a vital role in country economy and created new jobs in the bulk. Our economy is very much reliant upon the performance, sustainability and profitability of this important sector. The current turnover of the automotive industry is around USD 26.2 billon. This huge global competitiveness is exerting immense pressure on the industries manufacturing management especially on Supply Chain Management to deal with cost stress although it is presumed globalization cause cost effectiveness, however there are lot many challenges such as logistic cost.
INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY It was about 1897, first car ran in India while until 1930s, only few cars were directly imported. Indian automobile industry started raising since 1940s and Mahindra & Mahindra company was started by two brothers to trade under license from Willys. In a short time, the company established its branch to manufacture of light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and agricultural vehicles (tractors). However, Cars were carrying the tag of luxury till Japanese car manufacturers entered in the Indian market with the establishment of Maruti Udyog in the 1980s a joint ventures for manufacturing motorcycles and light commercial-vehicles, followed by numerous automobile manufacturers where Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra and Hindustan Motors are few, to mention. Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM) estimates that annual vehicle sales will be nearly 9 million by 2020 and India may witness the highest car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the roads.
ndian Automobile Industry Classification Indian automotive industry is producing a wide variety of vehicles e.g. Two and Three wheelers, passenger vehicles, light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles, agricultural vehicles (tractors and combines), construction machineries/vehicles and ancillary (component segment for all these categories). According to Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM) and Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), a modified classification of Indian automotive industry has been proposed in following.
Classification of Indian Automotive Industry
DATABASE: SQL Vs NoSQL
DATABASE: SQL vs NoSQL
With the advent of huge amount of data in technological era, SQL and NoSQL databases are majorly used. SQL stands for Structured Query Language which is used mainly for relational database management system and NoSQL refers to Not Only SQL which is a collection of non-relational data storage systems.
There are different types of RDBMS such as MS Access, Oracle, MySQL, Informix, SQL Server, Sybase which uses SQL as their standard database query language. Today SQL databases become an unavoidable part of IT department of any organization. MySQL is a Relational Database based SQL implementation for the web which is now being used in very large-scale websites such as Facebook etc.
There is relaxation of one or more of the ACID properties in NoSQL. Some of the NoSQL databases are Cassandra, CouchDB, Hadoop & Hbase, MongoDB, StupidDB. The aim of this blog is to compare these two SQL & NOSQL databases and tries to figure out which is better in terms of their performance & scalability.
It is a well known fact that SQL databases have taken over the world of data technologies and have been the primary source of data storage over decades. SQL databases are generally for accessing the relational databases.
Soon enough data started growing exponentially and scalability became a major issue, at that time NoSQL rolled in to save the day.NoSQL databases existed since 1960, but recently they have gained more popularity especially for providing the scaling feature.
The major difference between MongoDB and SQL Databases is the way of handling the data. In SQL databases, data is stored in tabular form of two-dimensional row-column structure while in MongoDB document model is followed, which allows storage of any type of data.
MongoDB Documents makes it easy for developers to map the data used in the application to its associated document in the database. While in SQL Database, creating a table with columns mapped to the object’s attributes in programming language is a little tedious.
When it comes to choosing a database, one of the biggest decisions is selecting a relational (SQL) or non-relational (NoSQL) data type structure. While both options are viable, but still there are certain key differences between the two and user chooses the option according to his requirements.
IoT (Internet of Things): Our Future
Life with IoT:
In just one year alone, we went from having 5 million IoT devices connected to the internet to billions.
The future is happening now, and these devices are getting smarter every day through machine learning and artificial intelligence. IoT devices are becoming a part of the conventional electronics culture and people are adopting smart devices into their homes faster than ever. It is estimated that there will be up to 21 billion connected devices to the internet. IoT devices will be a huge part of how we interact with everyday objects. There is big money in the IoT space currently, and it will only continue to grow as technology improves. The more data that IoT devices collect, the smarter they will become. Cities will transform into Smart Cities through the use of IoT connected devices. Think of Smart Traffic Lights that collect data on traffic, and use that data to synchronized lights to peak traffic times.
Overall, this improves cities overall efficiency and saves the government money since everything can be remotely managed. Smart homes, thermostats, lighting systems and coffee makers will all collect data on your habits and patterns of usage. All this data will be collected to help facilitate Machine Learning.
How do we security to these devices?With the billions of IoT devices connected to the open internet, how do we ensure these devices are secure?Encryption Scheme: AES vs. TLS/SSLEncryption can solve a complicated problem. When people think about encryption, many will turn to TLS/SSL, however, these protocols don’t cut it for encryption and processing. The reason these protocols aren’t optimal is they are point-to-point solutions and not end-to-end solutions. When data has to go through many different points on the chain, we are going to have to account for different security protocols and devices. This requires a security solution like AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) since it provides end-to-end security, and encrypts the message all the way through. Only devices with the encryption keys can decrypt the encrypted data as it’s sent and received.
AES also allows you to wrap the message body with AES and leave all the actionable data in TLS. Actionable data, for instance, would be temperature information that you are trying to read. In addition, we need to prevent all inbound ports from being open at all costs since this can leave your IoT devices open to vulnerabilities and DDOS attacks. Devices should only make outbound connections, so that way the door is closed to accessing applications and services behind those open ports. The connection outward can be left open so the device can listen in with a secure tunnel back from the network.Rather than trying to fit all of the IoT Protocols on top of existing architecture models like OSI Model, we have divided the protocols into the following layers to provide some level of organization:
- Infrastructure (ex: 6LowPAN, IPv4/IPv6, RPL)
- Identification (ex: EPC, uCode, IPv6, URIs)
- Comms / Transport (ex: Wifi, Bluetooth, LPWAN)
- Discovery (ex: Physical Web, mDNS, DNS-SD)
- Data Protocols (ex: MQTT, CoAP, AMQP, Websocket, Node)
- Device Management (ex: TR-069, OMA-DM)
- Semantic (ex: JSON-LD, Web Thing Model)
- Multi-layer Frameworks (ex: Alljoyn, IoTivity, Weave, Homekit)
Conclude: Machine learning and IoT together can do a miracle in today's modern technology, if both of them are used with good understanding.