RC Discussion for CAT 2012

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Hello Puys, Lets get started with the Reading Comprehensions for Cat 2012 Link for 2011 RC thread :- http://www.pagalguy.com/forum/english-resources/61599-rc-discussion-for-cat-2011-a.html Good Luck !!!! :: ::
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Hey guys I am reading the Hindu Editorials and other magazine regularly but still I am not scoring well in RCany suggestion to improve it, since I am in a hectic job so I can not spare more than 2 hr for cat preparation.

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Guys what is your average score in Aristotles RC 99 passages? I am getting 2 out of 3 in almost all passages.

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School main to kabhi RC galat nai hoti thi ab kyun 😞

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Crinoline and croquet are out. As yet, no political activist has thrown themselves in front of the royal horse on Derby Day. Even so, some historians can spot the parallels. It is a time of rapid technological change. It is a period when the dominance of the world's superpower is coming under threat. It is an epoch when prosperity masks underlying economic strain. And, crucially, it is a time when policy-makers are confident that all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. Welcome to the Edwardian summer of the second age of globalisation.


Spare a moment to take stock of what's been happening in the past few months. Let's start with the oil price, which has rocketed to more than $65 a barrel, more than double its level 18 months ago. The accepted wisdom is that we shouldn't worry our little heads about that, because the incentives are there for business to build new production and refining capacity, which will effortlessly bring demand and supply back into balance and bring crude prices back to $25 a barrel. As Tommy Cooper used to say, just like that.


In this new Edwardian summer, comfort is taken from the fact that dearer oil has not had the savage inflationary consequences of 1973-74, when a fourfold increase in the cost of crude brought an abrupt end to a postwar boom that had gone on uninterrupted for a quarter of a century. True, the cost of living has been affected by higher transport costs, but we are talking of inflation at 2.3% and not 27%. Yet the idea that higher oil prices are of little consequence is fanciful. If people are paying more to fill up their cars it leaves them with less to spend on everything else, but there is a reluctance to consume less. In the 1970s, unions were strong and able to negotiate large, compensatory pay deals that served to intensify inflationary pressure. In 2005, that avenue is pretty much closed off, but the abolition of all the controls on credit that existed in the 1970s means that households are invited to borrow more rather than consume less. The knock-on effects of higher oil prices are thus felt in different ways - through high levels of indebtedeness, in inflated asset prices and in balance of payments deficits


Finally, there's the question of what rising oil prices tell us. The emergence of China and India means global demand for crude is likely to remain high at a time when many experts say production is about to top out. If supply constraints start to bite, any declines in the price are likely to be short-term cyclical affairs punctuating a long upward trend. In those circumstances it would be the height of folly to assume that there will be no economic consequences or that there will not be an intense - perhaps even bloody - struggle for the resource that more than any other has shaped the modern world.


What can be inferred about author's view when he states 'As Tommy Cooper used to say "just like that"?


How does it feel To be without a home Like a complete unknown Like a rolling stone ?
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With only 3 months to go...i jst want 2 know hw mch avg reading i must do on daily basis to improve my RC skills...nt being n gud reader...plzz suggest n wat kind of stuff sud b included n from where??

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@angadsharma

Koi post hi nahi karta....mujhe hi start karna padega.....:sneaky::sneaky:RC-1Throughout human history the leading causes of death have been infection and trauma. Modem medicine has scored significant victories against both, and the major causes of ill health and death are now the chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimers, macular degeneration, cataract and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the majority of apparently healthy people are pre-ill. But are these conditions inevitably degenerative? A truly preventive medicine that focused on the pre-ill, analysing the metabolic errors which lead to clinical illness, might be able to correct them before the first symptom. Genetic risk factors are known for all the chronic degenerative diseases, and are important to the individuals who possess them. At the population level, however, migration studies confirm that these illnesses are linked for the most part to lifestyle factors exercise, smoking and nutrition. Nutrition is the easiest of these to change, and the most versatile tool for affecting the metabolic changes needed to tilt the balance away from disease. Many national surveys reveal that malnutrition is common in developed countries. This is not the calorie and/or micronutrient deficiency associated with developing nations (Type A malnutrition); but multiple micronutrient depletion, usually combined with calorific balance or excess (Type B malnutrition). The incidence and severity of Type B malnutrition will be shown to be worse if newer micronutrient groups such as the essential fatty acids, xanthophylls and flavonoids are included in the surveys. Commonly ingested levels of these micronutrients seem to be far too low in many developed countries. There is now considerable evidence that Type B malnutrition is a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this is the case, then it is logical to treat such diseases not with drugs but with multiple micronutrient repletion, or pharmaco-nutrition. This can take the form of pills and capsules nutraceuticals, or food formats known as functional foods, This approach has been neglected hitherto because it is relatively unprofitable for drug companies the products are hard to patent and it is a strategy which does not sit easily with modem medical interventionism. Over the last 100 years, the drug industry has invested huge sums in developing a range of subtle and powerful drugs to treat the many diseases we are subject to. Medical training is couched in pharmaceutical terms and this approach has provided us with an exceptional range of therapeutic tools in the treatment of disease and in acute medical emergencies. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which relatively few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our own health. Instead, we have handed over this responsibility to health professionals who know very little about health maintenance, or disease prevention. One problem for supporters of this argument is lack of the right kind of hard evidence. We have a wealth of epidemiological data linking dietary factors to health profiles / disease risks, and a great deal of information on mechanism: how food factors interact with our biochemistry. But almost all intervention studies with micronutrients, with the notable exception of the omega 3 fatty acids, have so far produced conflicting or negative results. In other words, our science appears to have no predictive value. Does this invalidate the science? Or are we simply asking the wrong questions? Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the impact of a single micronutrient on the incidence of disease. The classical approach says that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and obtain positive results, you cannot know which ingredient is exerting the benefit, so you must test each ingredient individually. But in the field of nutrition, this does not work. Each intervention on its own will hardly make enough difference to be measured. The best therapeutic response must therefore combine micronutrients to normalise our internal physiology. So do we need to analyse each individuals nutritional status and then tailor a formula specifically for him or her? While we do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming suboptimal amounts of most micronutrients, and most of the micronutrients concerned are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micronutrient support is probably the most cost-effective and safest way of improving the general health of the nation. A. Why are a large number of apparently healthy people deemed pre-ill? 1. They may have chronic degenerative diseases.2. They do not know their own genetic risk factors which predispose them to diseases.3. They suffer from Type-B malnutrition.4. There is a lengthy latency period associated with chronically degenerative diseases B. Type-B malnutrition is a serious concern in developed countries because 1. developing countries mainly suffer from Type-A malnutrition.2. it is a major contributor to illness and death.3. pharmaceutical companies are not producing drugs to treat this-condition.4. national surveys on malnutrition do not include newer micronutrient groups. C. Tailoring micronutrient-based treatment plans to suit individual deficiency profiles is not necessary because 1. it very likely to give inconsistent or negative results.2. it is a classic pharmaceutical approach not suited to micronutrients.3. most people are consuming suboptimal amounts of safe-to-consume micronutrients.4. it is not cost effective to do so. D. The author recommends micronutrient-repletion for large-scale treatment of chronic degenerative diseases because 1. it is relatively easy to manage.2. micronutrient deficiency is the cause of these diseases.3. it can overcome genetic risk factors.4. it can compensate for other lifestyle factors.



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@angadsharma Passage 1 .
A 4
B 3
C 4
D 4


All unhappiness is caused by attachment..~Goutam Buddha
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hello everybody. i'm varatharaj doing pre final year in mechanical engineering in coimbatore(tamilnadu).Right from the day i know about cat i started dreaming being an IIM er! MBA is my passion. im preparing for CAT 2013. As i was from a lower middle class background i cant afford to pay the coaching class fee. now iam preparing for CAT using the books from my college library.
but those books are really confusing and deviated from the actual CAT questions.i dont have a pc too. so i cant refer any online materials. i spend 4 hours daily for preparing CAT. my friend advised me that 4 hours of such preparations=1 hour of preparation by using standard materials like TIME,IMS. i went to TIME and ask them whether i can get the materials alone for a cheaper price. they said they will provide material only along with a course. and that course costs 20000! i was heart broken! i desperately need some standard books. i would be greatly thankful if someone is will to donate extra materials or old materials! PG is my only hope. so please help me! thank you all
IF SOMEONE CAN DO IT, SO CAN YOU!
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What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones. Osteoporosis literally leads to abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge. This disorder of the skeleton weakens the bone and results in frequent fractures (breaks) in the bones. Osteopenia is a condition of bone that is slightly less dense than normal bone but not to the degree of bone in osteoporosis.
What are osteoporosis symptoms and signs?
Osteoporosis can be present without any symptoms for decades because osteoporosis doesn't cause symptoms until bone fractures. Moreover, some osteoporotic fractures may escape detection for years when they do not cause symptoms. Therefore, patients may not be aware of their osteoporosis until they suffer a painful fracture. The symptom associated with osteoporotic fractures usually is pain; the location of the pain depends on the location of the fracture. The symptoms of osteoporosis in men are similar to the symptoms of osteoporosis in women.
Hip fractures typically occur as a result of a fall. With osteoporosis, hip fractures can occur as a result of trivial accidents. Hip fractures also may heal slowly or poorly after surgical repair because of poor healing of the bone.
What are the consequences of osteoporosis?
Osteoporotic bone fractures are responsible for considerable pain, decreased quality of life, lost workdays, and disability. Up to 30% of patients suffering a hip fracture will require long-term nursing-home care. Elderly patients can develop pneumonia and blood clots in the leg veins that can travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism) due to prolonged bed rest after the hip fracture. Osteoporosis has even been linked with an increased risk of death. Some 20% of women with a hip fracture will die in the subsequent year as an indirect result of the fracture. In addition, once a person has experienced a spine fracture due to osteoporosis, he or she is at very high risk of suffering another such fracture in the near future. About 20% of postmenopausal women who experience a vertebral fracture will suffer a new vertebral fracture of bone in the following year.
What is the treatment for osteoporosis, and can osteoporosis be prevented?
The goal of treatment of osteoporosis is the prevention of bone fractures by reducing bone loss or, preferably, by increasing bone density and strength. Although early detection and timely treatment of osteoporosis can substantially decrease the risk of future fractures, none of the available treatments for osteoporosis are complete cures. In other words, it is difficult to completely rebuild bone that has been weakened by osteoporosis. Therefore, prevention of osteoporosis is as important as treatment. The following are osteoporosis treatment and prevention measures:
Lifestyle changes
Exercise, quitting cigarettes, and curtailing alcohol
Exercise has a wide variety of beneficial health effects. However, exercise does not bring about substantial increases in bone density. The benefit of exercise for osteoporosis has mostly to do with decreasing the risk of falls, probably because balance is improved and/or muscle strength is increased. Research has not yet determined what type of exercise is best for osteoporosis or for how long it should be continued. Until research has answered these questions, most doctors recommend weight-bearing exercise, such as
walking, preferably daily.
Text 3: Questions 21-30
21. Osteopenia is
A. more serious than osteoporosis.
B. a similar condition to osteoporosis.
C. a condition which influences bone density.
D. a bone condition caused by frequent breaks.
22. Which statement is true of osteoporosis?
A. Osteoporosis is detected only when a bone breaks.
B. Osteoporosis can affect a person's quality of life long before a bone breaks.
C. A break causing physical discomfort usually leads to the discovery of osteoporosis.
D. Pain is the symptom connected to all osteoporotic fractures.
23. Why is osteoporosis such a worrying condition?
A. It affects most old people, both men and women.
B. It is painful for decades.
C. By the time it is detected, damage to the bones may be very serious.
D. Some fractures may take longer to heal after an accident.
24. According to the text, a pulmonary embolism
A. is the formation of blood clots in the lungs.
B. is caused by hip fractures.
C. may be caused by inactivity over a long period of time.
D. is the formation of blood clots in the legs.
25. What does such fracture in line 26 refer to?
A. an indirect fracture
B. a vertebral fracture
C. a subsequent fracture
D. a hip fracture
26. Osteoporotic treatment's preferred aim is
A. the reduction of bone loss by preventing fractures.
B. to restore bones to their previous condition.
C. to improve the density of bones and make them stronger.
D. to detect osteoporosis and treat fractures.
27. Which of the following statements is true?
A. More than a third of patients suffering from a broken hip will need long term nursing care.
B. Elderly patients can get a pulmonary embolism from travelling.
C. Hip fractures kill 20% of women within a year.
D. More postmenopausal women will not have a vertebral fracture in the next year than will.
28. Which of the following statements is true concerning exercise and osteoporosis?
A. Exercise has only indirect benefits for osteoporosis sufferers.
B. Daily weight-lifting is the recommended exercise.
C. Research indicates that the best type of exercise for osteoporosis is walking.
D. Exercise helps sufferers to give up smoking.


29. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the article?
A. a fracture of the backbone
B. effects of osteoporosis
C. hip replacement surgery
D. risk of bone fracture


30. Which is the best definition of osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a
A. long term disease caused by porous, fragile bones. It is difficult to treat because sufferers often don't know they are ill.
B. condition which affects both men and women making them more at risk of bone fractures and accidental falls.
C. bone condition caused by long term deterioration in the bone structure which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture.
D. bone condition resulting from a long term weakening in the strength of bones and muscles
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Text 2 Malaria
What is malaria?
Malaria is caused by an infection of the red blood cells with a tiny organism or parasite called a protozoan. There are four important species of the malaria protozoa (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae) and each has a slightly different effect. These organisms are carried from person to person by the Anopheles mosquito. When it bites an infected person, the mosquito sucks up blood containing the parasite, which may then be passed on to the mosquito's next victim.
Symptoms of malaria
The main symptom of malaria is a fever that occurs in regular episodes, with sweating and shivers (known as rigors), and exhaustion (because of anaemia). In some cases, it can affect the brain or kidneys.
Who's at risk of malaria?
Malaria occurs where the Anopheles mosquito breeds, predominantly in rural tropical areas. From a UK perspective, it's a threat to people travelling to malarial regions in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and central America. Each year about 2,000 people return to the UK with malaria, and approximately 12 people a year die as a consequence of the disease. Malaria is a major killer in many countries where resources for prevention, proper diagnosis and drug treatments are lacking. If diagnosed promptly, it can be easily treated but the symptoms can be vague and UK doctors may not immediately be thinking about tropical infections. About 90 per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home. Only about 12 per cent of these will become seriously ill. On average, symptoms develop 10 days to four weeks after being bitten, but symptoms can appear up to a year later. The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, which is fatal in up to six per cent of adults, mainly because it's not diagnosed until it's too late. Don't make the mistake of assuming you're safe from infection if you have previously lived in a malarial region - you may build up some immunity to the disease but this can be lost quickly. And if your children were born in the UK, they'll have no immunity at all. If you're going to visit, travel through, or even just stop over in a malarial country you'll be at risk, even if you have lived there before.
Preventing malaria
By far the most important step is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by:
• Using effective insect repellent
• Wearing long sleeves and full-length trousers
• Staying in accommodation with screen doors and closing windows
Before you travel, check whether your holiday destination is affected by malaria. Take the recommended antimalarial drugs. Generally speaking, these are taken from one week before you travel until one month after you return, but this can vary depending on the type of drug and the country you're visiting. Even when taken exactly as advised, antimalarial drugs are not 100 per cent effective, so you should still take the other preventive measures listed above. A major problem is the steady increase in malaria's resistance to drugs used in both prevention and treatment. Always talk to your doctor if you are worried - don't just stop taking antimalarials without getting medical advice. If you develop symptoms, get help quickly - and don't forget to tell the doctor you've travelled to a malarial area. Treatment is with antimalarial medication. In the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the search for a malaria vaccine, and it's hoped one will be available within the next five to 10 years.
Text 2: Questions 11-20
11. What does each refer to in line 4?
A. type of malaria
B. protozoan
C. Plasmodium falciparum
D. Plasmodium vivax

12. According to the text, which of the following statements is true?
A. All mosquitoes carry the malaria protozoa parasite.
B. Malaria is primarily transferred by mosquitoes.
C. Most mosquitoes die from infected blood.
D. Mosquitoes will only bite an infected person.

13. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of malaria?
A. a high temperature
B. extreme tiredness
C. trembling
D. regular episodes of brain damage


14. Which of the following statements is correct?
A. Annually, 2000 people returning home to the UK die of malaria.
B. Every year, 12% of people in the UK die of malaria.
C. Every year, approximately 12 people die from being bitten in the UK by a mosquito.
D. Less than 1% of people returning to the UK with malaria die from this disease.

15. What can we infer from the following statement about malaria?
“If diagnosed promptly, it can be easily treated but the symptoms can be vague and UK doctors may not immediately be thinking about tropical infections.” (lines 18 – 20)
Doctors in the UK
A. do not know about tropical infections such as malaria.
B. do not know about the symptoms of malaria.
C. may not immediately indentify this disease.
D. do not identify illness promptly.
16. According to the text, which one of the following people will have most likely developed complete immunity to malaria?
A. A person who was born in the UK.
B. A person who spends long periods of time in malarial countries.
C. A person who frequently travels from the UK to malarial regions.
D. None of the people mentioned above.
17. If a traveller spent three weeks in a malarial country, for how long would he have to take antimalarial drugs?
A. Three weeks
B. Four weeks
C. One week
D. Eight weeks
18. What is the problem with drugs used to treat and prevent malaria?
A. Mosquitoes are becoming resistant to these drugs.
B. The malaria protozoa are becoming resistant to these drugs.
C. People are steadily becoming more resistant to malaria and no longer need these drugs.
D. People stop taking these drugs without getting the proper medical advice.


19. According to the text, which one of the following statements is true about a malaria vaccine?
A. Ten years ago, scientists created a new malaria vaccine.
B. A malaria vaccine will be available in the next five to ten years.
C. A malaria vaccine may be available in the near future.
D. A malaria vaccine will be sold in the next five to ten years.
20. Who is this article probably aimed at?
A. a doctor who is studying the effects of malaria
B. a person who is from a malarial country
C. a person who is going to visit a malarial country
D. a person who would like to eradicate malaria
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