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MANAGEMENT: Corporate Governance as Risk Mitigation:

Corporate governance is of vital importance to a company and is almost as important as its primary business plan. When executed successfully, it can prevent corporate scandals, fraud and the civil and criminal liability of the company. It also improves a company’s status in the public opinion as a self-policing company that is responsible and worthy of shareholder and debt holder capital. It commands the shared philosophy, practices and culture of an organization and its employees. Firm without a system of corporate governance is often regarded as a body without a soul or conscience. Corporate governance enables a company honest and free from trouble. If this shared attitude breaks down, then corners will be cut, products will be defective and management will grow complacent and corrupt. The end result is a fall that will occur when gravity in the form of audited financial reports, criminal investigations and federal probes finally catches up, destroying the company instantaneously. Deceitful and unethical dealings can cause shareholders to escape out of fear, distrust and disgust.Plethora of research has revealed that good corporate governance can result in improved share price performance. It is well established in management reports that there is a great potential for good performance by companies, which have got good corporate governance mechanism and the greatest benefit is in developing companies. Studies have showed that investors are enthusiastic to invest in a better-governed company. Corporate Governance can be strong mechanism for development especially in country like India.

  The following issues are important for good Corporate Governance. 

1.The rights and obligation of shareholders.

 2.Impartial treatment of all stakeholders. 

3.The role of all stakeholders clearly defined and the linkage for corporate governance established. 

4.Transparency, disclosure of information and audit. 

5.The role of board of directors clearly defined. 

6.The role of non-executive members of the board clearly defined. 

7.Executive management and compensation and performance clearly defined. 



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SEBI GRADE A 2020 Costing: Lean System and Just in Time #SEBIGRADEA Sample study material https://youtu.be/pYbvho3y_0o https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qg9m8-QbLgcDSuB9emZGzI45bOVjgH-_/view?usp=drivesdk

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IMPORTANT TOPIC FOR SEBI GR A 2020 EXAM                                                                                                                                            COMMERCE & ACCOUNTS


Ratio Analysis and its Applications

Ratio analysis is a medium to understand the financial weakness and soundness of an organization. Keeping in mind the objective of analysis, the analyst has to select appropriate data to calculate appropriate ratios. Interpretation depends upon the caliber of the analyst.

Ratio analysis is useful in many ways to different concerned parties according to their respective requirements. Ratio analysis can be used in the following ways:

To know the financial      strength and weakness of an organization.

To measure operative      efficiency of a concern.

For the management to review      past year’s activity.

To assess level of      efficiency.

To predict the future plans      of a business.

To optimize capital      structure.

In inter and intra company      comparisons.

To measure liquidity, solvency,      profitability and managerial efficiency of a concern.

In proper utilization of      assets of a company.

In budget preparation.

In assessing solvency of a      firm, bankruptcy position of a firm, and chances of corporate sickness.

Advantages of Ratio Analysis

· It is powerful tool to measure short and long-term solvency of a company.

· It is a tool to measure profitability and managerial efficiency of a company.

· It is an important tool to measure operating activities of a business.

· It helps in analyzing the capital structure of a company.

· Large quantitative data may be summarized using ratio analysis.

· It relates past accounting performances with the current.

· It is useful in coordinating the different functional machineries of a company.

· It helps the management in future decision-making.

· It helps in maintaining a reasonable balance between sales and purchase and estimating working capital requirements.

Limitations of Ratio Analysis

Although Ratio Analysis is a very useful accounting tools to analyze and interpret different accounting equations, it comes with its own set of limitations:

· If the data received from financial accounting is incorrect, then the information derived from ratio analysis could not be reliable.

· Unauthenticated data may lead to misinterpretation of ratio analysis.

· Future prediction may not be always dependable, as ratio analysis is based on the past performance.

· To get a conclusive idea about the business, a series of ratios is to be calculated. A single ratio cannot serve the purpose.

· It is not necessary that a ratio can give the real present situation of a business, as the result is based on historical data.

· Trend analysis is done with the help of various calculated ratios that can be distorted due to the changes in the price level.

· Ratio analysis is effective only where same accounting principles and policies are adopted by other concerns too, otherwise inter-company comparison will not exhibit a real picture at all.

· Through ratio analysis, special events cannot be identified. For example, maturity of debentures cannot be identified with ratio analysis.

· For effective ratio analysis, practical experience and knowledge about particular industry is essential. Otherwise, it may prove worthless.

· Ratio analysis is a useful tool only in the hands of an expert.

Types of Ratio

Ratios can be classified on the basis of financial statements or on the basis of functional aspects.

Classification on the Basis of Financial Statement

Balance Sheet Ratios

Ratios calculated from taking various data from the balance sheet are called balance sheet ratio. For example, current ratio, liquid ratio, capital gearing ratio, debt equity ratio, and proprietary ratio, etc.

Revenue Statement Ratio

Ratios calculated on the basis of data appearing in the trading account or the profit and loss account are called revenue statement ratios. For example, operating ratio, net profit ratio, gross profit ratio, stock turnover ratio.

Mixed or Composite Ratio

When the data from both balance sheet and revenue statements are used, it is called mixed or composite ratio. For example, working capital turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, accounts payable turnover ratio, fixed assets turnover ratio, return of net worth ratio, return on investment ratio.  

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SEBI grade A officer 2020  notification out :Click the given link below for exam date, last date to apply, eligibility criteria, exam  pattern, syllabus, post detail,etc.


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Preparation Stratergy by SEBI GRADE A Officer Mr. Praveen (AIR 21)



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 Key Takeaways Of Trump Visit:
If we remind each word said by Trump during a press conference we can conclude that Yes, India is benefited by Trump’s visit. Trump conveys his message through the conference on how to make ties and increase the Indo-US relationship in an efficient manner.

  1. India and the United States sign a 3 billion great deal for military choppers.
  2. India is going to be a major player in the next 50 to 100 years; India is going to have a phenomenal future: Trump
  3. India is probably the highest tariff nation in the world, says Trump
  4. If the trade deal happens with India, it will be towards the end of the year,” says Trump
  5. Discussed Pakistan with PM Modi; I have a good equation with Pakistan PM Imran Khan, they are working to control cross-border terrorism,” says Trump
  6. Trump says he talked about religious freedom with Modi, who said he wants people to have religious freedom. “We did talk about religious freedom. Prime Minister Modi wants people to have religious freedom in India…If you look back India has worked hard for religious freedom,” Trump said.
  7. “I didn’t discuss with PM Modi, it is up to India,” says Trump on violent incidents in New Delhi during his visit and also on the CAA act.
  8. I don’t think anyone has done more than I did,” says Trump on containing radical Islamic terrorism
  9. “At this moment, India doesn’t have much of a problem with coronavirus,” says Trump.

Now, we just have to observe that will India implements and execute all the deals accurately and commit to openness and fair and balanced trade and bilateral trade between Indo-Us has seen growth. I hope the Indo-Us relationship will surely benefit India.


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How to score 80+ marks in ESI & ARD Paper of NABARD GRADE A PHASE II


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Reasons Behind Success of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)
  • Mass Communication Campaign: Swachh Bharat Mission, recognising the issue of social acceptability, launched a massive communication campaign to bring about a change in the social attitude. Reaching out to the masses effectively was one of the foremost foundations of this scheme.The Prime Minister of India's leadership in SBM, became the key ingredient for success of Swachh Bharat Mission.  
  • Clear Vision: Swachh Bharat Mission had clearly defined national targets, the action plan and outlined the tasks and roles at each level of operation.
  • Use of Nudge Theory: Majority of funds in SBM have gone towards incentivising the poor and marginalised households to construct and use household toilets, bringing about behaviour change, and building capacities of field functionaries.
  • Long Term Approach: Achieving ODF status hasn't led to closure of the mission.Government under rural sanitation has declared to shift its focus on ODF sustainability, bio-degradable waste management, greywater management, sludge management and, critically, plastic waste management for all villages by 2024.  
Multiplier Effect of SBM
  • The returns on investments made in SBM, have been manifold, and their effects on the broader economy, markets and employment have been significant.
  • UNICEF recently estimated that investments in sanitation in India are yielding a 400% return with each rural household in an open-defecation-free village saving Rs 50,000 on account of avoided medical costs and time savings.
  • The Toilet Board Coalition has estimated that the sanitation infrastructure and services market in India will be worth over $60 billion by 2021, generating many new jobs, even in the most rural areas of the country, apart from reducing health and environmental costs and enhancing savings for households.
  • Many people engaged in the business of manufacturing toilet related hardware accessories have reported huge growth in sales during the SBM period.This has been corroborated by another recent study by UNICEF in which they have estimated that SBM has resulted in creating over 75 lakh full time equivalent jobs over the past five years, giving the rural economy a major boost.  
After the success of SBM, the next critical basic service that the government ought to provide is water supply.
  • Decentralised Approach: Union budget for 2020-2021 has commitment of Rs 3.6 lakh crore of central and state funds under this scheme.However, there is a need to follow a more decentralised approach (engaging local bodies) as envisaged by SBM. This will ensure that the gram panchayats and local urban bodies have responsibility to upkeep of their water and sanitation infrastructure, providing a boost to the sustainability of service delivery to people. This approach will ensure that just like sanitation, provision of water supply and its upkeep will also become everyone’s business.  
  • Women in Leadership Roles: SBM focused on ending the practice of open defecation, which directly benefited the women by restoring their dignity and basic health.This made women a flag bearer in the sanitation revolution.In rural India, women have to walk long distances in unfriendly weather and treacherous terrain to fetch water for their families. According to a report by the National Commission for Women, on average, a rural woman in Rajasthan walks over 2.5 km to reach a water source. Providing piped water supply will provide women with the opportunity to use their time more productively and improve their quality of life. Another scheme to conserve groundwater in regions with low water tables, the Atal Bhujal Yojana is based on community participation, a key component of this programme is the formation of water use associations, in which at least 50% of members are to be women. These steps will provide a massive fillip to the ease of living for women.  
  • Nudging the FarmerAbout 90% of India’s water is consumed in farming. And that 80% of this irrigation is for water-guzzling crops — rice, wheat and sugarcane. There is a need to diversify procurement operations, to include less water-intensive crops, like millets, pulses and oilseeds, especially in India’s drylands. However, changing the procurement process to less water-intensive crops requires a lot of political capital. Government can nudge the farmers to grow less water-intensive crops.

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Any working , rbi gB aspirant interested to join close study group ? Group size 4-5 preferably .

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