ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PDF NOTES DOWNLOAD
CIVIL ENGINEERING PDF NOTES DOWNLOAD
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Rise of the Internet and Average Citizens
Increased access to the Internet has enabled citizens to obtain relevant information about their rights, policies and laws of the state as well as vote for all these without depending on the elected representatives. Such tendency has encouraged the Framers of the Constitution to favor direct democracy rather than representative one. First of all, they were acquainted with pure democracy and thus, feared the results of approving its any different manifestation as it would violate the individual rights. Hence, the Framers preferred the Republican form of government where people chose their leaders. They created a federal government where powers were separated and also established a supreme court to offer legal actions.
Majority rule, used in many democracies, requires a binding decision to be made by a large number of people in a group. I personally would favor this type of decision-making system since it offers the citizens of a particular nation democratic rights to elect their leaders, and their decisions are obligatory. Besides, the law allows the citizens, including the representatives of the minorities, to enjoy all their rights without any interference (Eavey, 2013). Therefore, a nation is concerned that the majority rule prospers politically and economically.
Non-governmental Organization Power Distribution
NGO is defined as an international nonprofit-making organization which aims to improve the wealthfare of the community. Such establishments usually focus on health, poverty eradication, education, and human rights protection. They operate from lobbying and advocacy and are founded on private sponsorship.
To illustrate, sporting teams are NGOS, and their powers are distributed from the general manager, team coach as well as team captain to the rest of the technical bench staff. The team manager is responsible for the liaison between the coach and the players. He or she also supports the coach in maintaining the club organized and ensures official communication concerning the team games schedules. The manager also has the authority to delegate some of the roles of other members such as the assistant manager.
The coach assists in developing individual players’ potential as well as structuring the team game plan. Most of the sporting teams are organized democratically since all the decisions must be made by the members of the club during their annual general meeting. The members are encouraged to convey their views, and sometimes voting takes place to ensure the conformity with the majority rule.
Strengths and weaknesses of American Federalism
Federalism is a political unit that has powers divided between the central and regional governments. Federalism comprises the following strengths:
· Creates state loyalties: Most of the Americans experience close attachment with their state; hence, the citizens also have the motivation to be loyal to it.
· Facilitates political stability: Federalism has ensured the US government has achieved and maintained political stability.
· Enables separation of powers: Federalism guarantees that state governments function independently without any interference.
· Local representation: Federalism creates a representation of different populations in the US.
On the other hand, the American Federalism is weak due to such aspects:
· Prevents establishment of national policy: The US lacks single national system since they only have 51 policies which create a lot of confusion.
· Results in the lack of accountability: Overlap of boundaries in the two forms of governments makes it difficult to blame anyone for policy failure.
· Leads to corruption: Federal government has many people elected to the offices with various overlapping roles which can lead to corruption.
Generally, Federalism is one of the main principles of the American constitution since its founders desired that powers would be divided into two main levels of the government such as national and state. Basically, it was a system in which powers had to be shared among two forms of the government. Checks and balances would, therefore, be facilitated since each government could monitor the other for the welfare of the citizens.
Principles of the American political culture
American political culture contains the following major principles:
· Liberty and Equality. Liberty is the right to be free as long as the rights of another person are not violated. Equality means that all the people have even opportunities to compete. The latter principle is particularly important in law since everybody is supposed to obey it.
· Democracy and Individualism. Democracy ensures that people elect their leaders to represent them, while Individualism concerns valuing the personal rights; it is highly protected by the Bill of Rights.
After the Declaration of Independence, many people such as federalists and anti-federalists believed in the protection of political culture through a written Constitution. They are contained in the Bill of Rights to ensure that the rights of the people are not violated (Kincaid, & Cole, 2015).
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