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Join the discussion to Get tips on CV Preparation, cracking Mathematical Aptitude Tests, cracking Logical Reasoning Tests, Performing well In Group Discussions, mastering in English Grammar & Vocabulary, participate in our weekly Online Contests - Math Whiz & Grammar Guru

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Quite helpful. Thanks

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jayBeePK
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@zahidkhan indeed! it is helpful, https://ten4kids.com

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Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation

4 TIPS on answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation



Tip 1: Use a physical calculator and a notepad



Online proctored tests disallow candidates from using Calculator Software Applications in Desktop/ Laptop/ Mobile Device where the test is being given. However, a separate handheld calculator can be used.


Use a notebook with a pencil to jot down relevant numbers to help you in making quick calculations.




Tip 2: While calculating averages, it is easier to assume an approximate mean and calculation average of differences from that mean





Question: What is the average marks scored by the student across all six periodical exams?


Solution:


You can assume the mean to be 380.


The differences from the assumed mean are: -20, -15, -10, +5, +20, +25


Average of the differences = + 0.83333


Average Marks = Assumed Mean + Average Difference = 380.8333


(See Image..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation


Tip 3: Percentage of Change (Increase/ Decrease) = Difference/ Original Value * 100

Question:


If the expenditure in 2000 is 25% more than expenditure in 1997, then the income in 1997 is what percent less than the income in 2000?


Solution:


Assume that Expenditure in 1997 is Rs.100. Expenditure in 2000 = Rs.125.


Profits in 1997 = Rs45 (45% of expenditure)


Income in 1997 = Rs145


Profits in 2000 = Rs75 (60% of expenditure)


Income in 2000 = Rs200                                                                                                     


Change in income from 2000 to 1997 = Change/ Original Value x 100 = 55/200 * 100 = 27.5%

(See Image..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation


Tip 4: Grasp the information from the chart visually to answer some questions very quickly

Question: Nearly 20% of the funds are to be sourced through?


Solution:


Roughly a quarter of all the funds are to be sourced through this channel. Which implies a sector with an angle of around 90⁰.


The only sector with an angle close to 90⁰ is “External Assistance”.

(See Image..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation


(contd..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/87-chart-data-interpretation/1-tips-on-chart-data-interpretation/


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Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems

9 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions on Visual-Spatial Problem Solving


Tip 1: For pattern construction questions, remember that the resultant pattern must be formed using only the given figures


Question: Find out which of the figures (1), (2), (3), (4) can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X).

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


The figure must consist of a right triangle, a trapezium and an irregular pentagon, as shown above. Looking at the options one by one, we see that option (1) consists of the given figures rotated by 90⁰, the triangle and trapezium, clockwise, and the pentagon, anti-clockwise. (2) is not made of any of (X) except the trapezium. Similarly, (3) does not contain the pentagon and (4) consists of all shapes other than those in (X). Thus, the correct option is (1).


Question: Find out which of the figures (1), (2), (3), (4) can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X).

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


(X) Consists of 2 isosceles triangles and 2 right angled triangles. Now, (1), (2) and (4) cannot be formed using only these figures. Only (3) can be made using them, as follows:


Thus, the answer is (3).




Tip 2: Sometimes, it is quicker to just eliminate the invalid options


Question: Find out how the key figure (X) look will like after rotation.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


We analyze the options one by one. (1) Can be eliminated since it contains more sections than the given figure. Similarly, (2) and (3) are also different from (X). Hence the answer is (4).


Question: Select the alternative in which the specified components of the key figure (X) are found.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


Analyzing the options one by one, we see that (1) and (2) do not consist of ( ̶ ), while (3) consists of (ᴓ), which is not present in (X) at all. Thus, all these options are eliminated, and the correct answer is (4), which, we may cross-check as containing all components of (X) only.




Tip 3: For problems on Paper Cutting, imagine the process of folding, cutting and opening, and draw indicative diagrams if required


Question: Choose a figure which would most closely resemble the unfolded form of Figure (Z).


A. (1)     B. (2)     C. (3)        D. (4)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


The paper has been folded at 2 corners and 1 hole has been made on each fold. Since the paper was folded from either corner, when they are unfolded, there will be 4 holes, all on the diagonal joining them. Thus, figure (3) is the correct figure, and the answer is (C).


Question: Choose a figure which would most closely resemble the unfolded form of Figure (Z).


A. (1)     B. (2)      C. (3)        D. (4)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


The paper has been folded equally thrice. Now, when it is unfolded, it will consist of 4 symmetrical parts, that look exactly like the cutout in form (Z). Thus, one of (2) and (3) is correct. Now, figure (3) is incorrect since there is a cut along the base of the (Z) which will result in a joint shape. So the answer is (B).




Tip 4: In Dot Situation problems, simply find the figure that contains all the sections as the dots in the original figure


Question: Select the figure which satisfies the same conditions of placement of the dots as in Figure-X.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


In (X), one of the dots lies in the region common to circle and square only, another dot lies in the region common to square, triangle and rectangle only and the 3rd dot lies in the region common to triangle and rectangle only. In each of the figures (1), (2) and (3) there is no region common to square, triangle and rectangle only. Only fig. (4) Consists of all the 3 types of regions.




Tip 5: For problems on Embedded Images, find the figure from the given options in which the original figure can be completely traced


Question: Find out the alternative figure which contains figure (X) as its part.


(A) 1         (B) 2           (C) 3            (D) 4

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


Looking at the answer figures one by one: (X) Cannot be traced anywhere in (1). Again, in (2), the figure is the lateral inversion of (X). Similarly, in (4), the figure is broken. Thus, all of these can be eliminated. Only in fig. (3) can fig. (X) be traced. Therefore, the answer is (C).


Question: Find out the alternative figure which contains figure (X) as its part.


(A) 1         (B) 2           (C) 3            (D) 4


(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


From the figures, it is clear that fig. (X) cannot be traced in fig. (1), (2) and (3), but can be traced only in fig. (4). Thus, the answer is (D).




Tip 6: Mirror Image of a figure has all parts of the figure laterally inverted but not vertically


Some points to note are:


1.    Mirror images of alphabets A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X, Y, and digits 0, 8, are the same as the original ones.


2.    The mirror image of a sequence of words and/or numbers is the mirror image of each, written in the reverse order.


3.    The figure should remain the same vertically.


Question: Choose the alternative which is closely resembles the mirror image of the given combination.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


Only the 2nd option can be correct since in all the other options the 1st and last characters are incorrect, i.e. not beginning with the mirror image of 2 and ending with A. Thus, the answer is (2).



Question: Choose the correct mirror image of the figure (X) from amongst the alternatives

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


Options (1) and (2) may be eliminated since they are vertically inverted as well. Now, since the small square appears on the left side of the line in (X), it should appear on the right side of the line in the mirror image. So the answer is (3). 




Tip 7: Water Image of a figure has all parts of the figure vertically inverted


Thus, here:


1.    The water images of alphabets B, C, D, E, H, I, K, O, X, and of digits 0, 8, remain the same as the original.


2.    The water image of a sequence of words and/or numbers is the water image of each, written in the same order.


3.    The figure should remain the same vertically.


Question: Choose the alternative which closely resembles the water-image of the given combination.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


Option (1) can be eliminated since it is laterally inverted as well. Again, in (2), L and in (3), E is laterally inverted as well. Only (4) is the correct water image of (X).




Tip 8: While counting the number of figures, count smaller ones first followed by larger ones etc.


Note: Remember to count all the figures. For example, if you are asked to count the no. of triangles in a figure, count the simplest triangles, triangles made by 2 simpler components, those made by 3 simpler components, etc. until no triangle can be formed any longer. 


Question: Count the number of triangles and squares in the given figure.


(A) 36 triangles, 7 squares    (B) 38 triangles, 9 squares


(C) 40 triangles, 7 squares     (D) 42 triangles, 9 squares

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Solution:


The figure may be labeled as follows:


Triangles:


Simplest triangles: BGM, GHM, HAM,


ABM, GIN, UN, JHN, HGN, IKO, KLO,


LJO, JIO, KDP, DEP, ELP, LKP, BCD and AFE i.e. 18 in number.


Triangles composed of 2 components each: ABG, BGH, GHA, HAB, HGI, GIJ, IJH, JHG, JIK, IKL, KLJ, LJI, LKD, KDE, DEL and ELK i.e. 16 in number.


Triangles composed of 4 components each: BHI, GJK, ILD, AGJ, HIL and JKE i.e. 6 in number.


Total number of triangles in the figure = 18 +16 + 6 = 40.


Squares:


Squares composed of 2 components each: MGNH, NIOJ and OKPL i.e. 3 in number.


Squares composed of 4 components each: BGHA, GIJH, IKLJ and KDEL i.e. 4 in number.


Total number of squares in the figure = 3 + 4 = 7.


Therefore, the answer is (A).




Tip 9: For problems on Paper Folding, draw mirror/water images as required for the folded section and merge with the other section


Question: Find out from amongst the four alternatives as to how the pattern would appear when the transparent sheet is folded at the dotted line.


Solution:  

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


The mirror image of the right side of the image is given by (C). Hence, it is the correct answer.


Question: Find out from amongst the four alternatives as to how the pattern would appear when the transparent sheet is folded at the dotted line.


Solution:     

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems


Option (A) is clearly not the correct answer. Again, options (2) and (3) may be eliminated since in fig. (X), the two straight lines on the left side are vertical, and those on the right are horizontal. Thus, the answer is (D).



(contd..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/84-visual-spatial-problems/1-tips-on-visual-spatial-problems/



LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/

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jayBeePK
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Hi there, I just checked out the resource that you shared. I must appreciate it with open heart. I is indeed helpful for all children & students. The other helpful resource regarding study I found https://ten4kids.com/my-favorite-teacher-essay/

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Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test Questions For Pattern Matching

5 TIPS on Cracking Aptitude Questions on Pattern Matching


Tip #1: Find the sequence of transformations applied on the figures


Some common transformations that are followed in this type of questions are:


Rotation: A part or whole of the figure may be rotated by a certain angle.


Illustration 1: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



In the figures, the shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the clockwise direction while the un-shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the anti-clockwise direction. Scanning through the options, we see that the 3rd figure satisfies these conditions. Thus, the answer is 3.


Enclosure: A specific part or whole of the figure may be enclosed in some shape.


Sides/ Lines: The number of sides/ lines in the figure may follow a certain progression.


Illustration 2: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



In these figures, the polygon rotates 90⁰ Clock-Wise, gets smaller in size and gets enclosed by a figure with one less side than itself. So the last figure will have a rhombus enclosed in a triangle. Thus, the correct answer is 1.


Vertical/ Lateral Inversion: The figure may be inverted vertically, laterally, or both during successive transformations.


Illustration 3: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



Figure B is the result of vertical inversion of A. We may, thus, conclude that a figure is vertically inverted in the subsequent figure. Thus, the missing figure will be an inverted form of C. Looking at the answer figures, we see that figure 1 follows this transformation. Thus, the answer is 1.


Shifting: A specific or whole of the figure may be shifted in any direction.


Combination: A figure may follow more than one of the above mentioned transformations.


Illustration 4: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



Except for the dots, the remaining part of the figure gets inverted and shifts to the opposite side of the square boundary. Thus, in the final figure, the sign ‘<‘will be inverted and will shift to the left side of the square boundary. This will be figure 3 from the answer figures. Thus, the answer will be 3.




Tip #2: Break the figure into smaller parts to identify the pattern for figure completion


Following are some of the ways of splitting a figure into smaller parts:


Geometry: The figure may be broken into circles, triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, etc. that overlap, touch each other, enclose some shape(s), or are just parts of the figure.


Illustration 5: Identify the figure that completes the pattern.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


Each quarter of the triangle consists of 2 right angled triangles. Thus, option D is correct.


Illustration 6: Identify the figure that completes the pattern.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


The missing section should have 4 lines. One of these lines should touch the bottom left of the square and another should touch the top right. Only (D) matches these requirements.




Tip #3: Classify the figures on the basis of sides, geometry or dimensions


Some of the common classification bases are as follows:


No. of Sides: Figures can be classified depending on the no. of sides they have.

Type of geometry: The figures may be classified as triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, etc.

Dimension: You may classify the figures as 2-D or 3-D figures.

Conjoined, enclosed, or overlapping: Some figures may be complex, consisting of conjoined shapes, smaller shapes enclosed within larger ones and/or partially or completely overlapping shapes, while others might be simple.



Illustration 7: Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


The given figures can be classified on the basis of number of sides. Figures 1, 6 and 9 have 3 sides each; 3, 4 and 7 have 4 sides each; 2, 5 and 8 have 5 sides each.


Answer: 1, 6, 9| 3, 4, 7| 2, 5, 8.


Illustration 8: Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


1, 2 and 7 are simple figures.


3, 5 and 9 each have one shape enclosing another smaller shape.


4, 6 and 8 each have two shapes each that are touching each other.


Thus, the given figures can be classified as:


1, 2, 7| 3, 5, 9| 4, 6, 8.




Tip #4: Analyze the options one by one and eliminate choices that do not follow the rule

Illustration 9: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.


Rule: Closed figures gradually become open and open figures gradually become closed.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


The 1st choice can be eliminated since in the 2nd figure itself, the inner circle does not open, but is replaced by a triangle. In the next set, the inner square does not open in the 2nd figure. All the figures in the 3rd option follow the rule, with the rectangle opening up and the straight line inside it closing into a rhombus. Thus, the answer is (3).


Illustration 10: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.


Rule: As the circle decreases in size, its sectors increase in number.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


In the 1st option, though the size of the circle decreases, the no. of sectors remains the same. In the 2nd option, the no. of sectors in the 4th figure is less than that in the 3rd. Again in the 3rd choice, the no. of sectors in the 2nd figure is less than that in the 3rd. Thus, none of these options follow the rule. The correct answer is (D) and we may confirm that in the 4th option, the size of the circle decreases consistently while the no. of sectors increases.




Tip #5: Complexity of a figure is determined by the no. of sides, shapes, sections, etc.

When a figure is said to become simpler, it means that one or more of the following happens:


Lines: If the no. of consistent lines of the figure continuously decreases, then it may be concluded that the figure is becoming simpler. In other words, if the no. of sectors of the figure keeps decreasing, then it is said to be becoming simpler.

Shapes: If a figure becomes simpler, the no. of shapes consisting some part or whole of the figure keeps on decreasing consistently.

Curves: The figures may also consist of certain curves. The extent or length of the figure keeps decreasing as the figure becomes simpler.

Opening of figure: At times, a part or whole of the figure opens up, thus making it simpler.

Illustration 11: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.


Rule: The series becomes simpler as it proceeds.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching


Analyzing the sets one by one, we see:


In the 1st set, the no. of sectors initially decreases, making the figure simpler, but then in the 5th figure, it again increases. Similarly, in the 2nd set, the complexity increases and decreases alternately. So none of them follow the rule. The figure in the 3rd choice, however, keeps becoming simpler as the no. of leaves and lines inside the circle keeps decreasing. The correct answer is (3).


Illustration 12: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.


Rule: The series becomes more complex as it proceeds.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



Analyzing the sets one by one, we see:


In the 1st set, the last figure is simpler than its preceding one in that the curve forming the vein of the leaf shortens. Considering the 2nd set, the 4th figure is simpler than the 3rd one since the lower left circle opens up. So, both these options are eliminated. Now, the 3rd set keeps becoming complex as the no. of sectors, and then triangles (at the edges), keeps increasing. Answer: (3).


Illustration 13: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.


Rule: The series becomes more complex as it proceeds.

(See Image..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching



Again, we analyze the options one by one.


The 1st set can be eliminated as it alternates between becoming simpler and complex owing to the no. of lines in the figure. The 2nd option keeps becoming more complex as the no. of lines and hence, sectors, keeps increasing. Thus, the correct answer is (2).



(contd..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/85-pattern-recognition/1-tips-on-pattern-recognition/


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Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams

3 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Venn Diagrams



Tip #1: Start working from the outermost Venn diagram and gradually move inwards



Question: Which of the following diagrams indicates the best relation between Women, Mothers and Engineers?

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams


Solution:


Some women are mothers and some are engineers. All mothers are women, and some mothers are engineers. However, not all engineers are women. So, the answer is A.


Question: In an organization of pollution control board, engineers are represented by a circle, legal experts by a square and environmentalist by a triangle. Who is most represented in the board as shown in the following figure?


(a)   Environmentalists with Legal background                      


(b)   Legal Experts


(c)   Engineers with legal background


(d)   Environmentalists with engineering background


Solution:

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams


We have to assume that the shape with the largest area is the most represented. Among the given options, D (i.e.) Environmentalists with Engineering background has the largest area. Thus, the correct answer is D.




Tip #2: Reduce the question as the overlapping of different portions of the Venn diagram



In the following figure Upper Square represents the persons who know English, triangle those who know Marathi, Lower Square to those who know Telugu and circle those who know Hindi. In the different regions of the diagram, the counts are given.


Question: How many persons can speak English and Hindi both the languages only?                                                     


Solution:                                                                                                


The people who can speak English and Hindi is represented by the portion of intersection of the circle and the upper square only. The no. here is 5. So 5 people can speak Hindi and English both.

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams


Question: How many persons can speak all languages?                                   


Solution:                                                                             


The people speaking all languages is represented by the portion of the Venn diagram that has all the figures overlapping. Since there is no such area where all the figures are overlapping, it means that no person can speak all the languages.




Tip #3: The portion outside a figure represents the complement of the quantity inside it



In the following diagram rectangle represents men, Triangle represents educated, Circle represents urban and square represents government employees.


Question: How many men are educated but not urban?              


(a)  9


(b)  5


(c)  4


(d)  11


Solution:

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams


Educated but non-urban men is represented by the portion of the triangle that overlaps with the rectangle but not the circle. Thus, 11 men are educated but not urban. The correct answer is D.


Question: Which one of the following represents a woman who is urban as well as government employee?


(a)  7


(b)  13


(c)  10


(d)  6


Solution:


Since the rectangle represents men, the portions of the other shapes that do not overlap with the rectangle represent women. The portion of the circle that overlaps with the square but not with the rectangle represents urban women who are government employees. Thus the answer is 10, i.e., C.



(contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/72-venn-diagrams/1-tips-on-venn-diagrams/


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Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Statements & Arguments

3 TIPS to crack Reasoning Questions on Statements and Assumptions



Tip #1: Assumptions should be drawn only from the given statement, not from your real life experiences

Statement:  "Please put more people on the job to make up for the delay."


Assumptions: 


(I)     Delay is inevitable in most jobs.


(II)   Output will increase with more number of people on the job.




A.   Only assumption I is implicit      


B.   Only assumption II is implicit


C.   Either I or II is implicit               


D.   Neither I nor II is implicit


E.    Both I and II are implicit


Solution:


Assumption I is not implicit, even if based on your real life experiences, you may believe that delay is inevitable in most jobs. As per the statement, increasing the number of people will make up for the delay by increasing the output. So II is implicit. Thus, correct option is B.


Statement: If you are an engineer, we have a challenging job for you.


Assumptions: 


(I)   We need an engineer. 


(II) You are an engineer.




A.   Only assumption I is implicit    


B.   Only assumption II is implicit


C.   Either I or II is implicit         


D.   Neither I nor II is implicit


E.    Both I and II are implicit


Solution:


An engineer is needed, hence the advertisement. So assumption I is implicit.


Assumption II is not implicit, even if the reader is an engineer.


Hence the correct option is A.




Tip #2: Don’t extrapolate beyond what is given in the statement to arrive at false assumptions



Statement: Everybody loves reading adventure stories.


Assumptions: 


(I)   Adventures stories are the only reading material.


(II) Nobody loves reading any other material.




A.   Only assumption I is implicit      


B.   Only assumption II is implicit


C.   Either I or II is implicit               


D.   Neither I nor II is implicit


E.    Both I and II are implicit


Solution:  


Neither (I) nor (II) can be reasonably drawn from the given statement. Thus, correct answer will be D.


Statement: “You can't solve syllogism question without constructing a diagram. Difficult questions on syllogism need Venn diagram solving,” a teacher tells his students.


Assumption: 


(I)   The students are not intelligent. 


(II) Problem cannot be solved.




A.   Only assumption I is implicit      


B.   Only assumption II is implicit


C.   Either I or II is implicit               


D.   Neither I nor II is implicit


E.    Both I and II are implicit


Solution:


Assumption I is false because nothing is said about the students. Assumption II is false since the statement does not say that the problem cannot be solved. So, correct answer is D.




Tip #3: If a notice/ advertisement is put up, the implicit assumption is that it will have impact



Statement: Do not copy our software without our permission - A notice.


Assumptions: 


(I)   It is possible to copy the software. 


(II) Such warning will have some effect.




A.   Only assumption I is implicit      


B.   Only assumption II is implicit


C.   Either I or II is implicit               


D.   Neither I nor II is implicit


E.    Both I and II are implicit


Solution:


If it were not possible to copy the software, there would be no need for the notice. Hence, (I) is implicitly true. Similarly, if the warning would have no impact, the notice would not be posted. Hence, (II) is also implicit. So, the correct answer is E.


Statement: "A rare opportunity to be a professional while you are at home." - An advertisement for computer literate housewives by a computer company.


Assumptions: 


(I)   Some housewives simultaneously desire to become professional.


(II) Computer industry is growing at a fast pace.


(III)        It is possible to be a professional as well as a housewife.




A.   Only I and II are implicit


B.   Only II and III are implicit


C.   Only I and III are implicit


D.   Only II is implicit


E.    None of these


Solution:


If no housewives desired to become professionals, there would be no reason to make the advertisement. Hence, (I) is implicit. (III) is also implicit, otherwise the advertisement would not be made in the first place. Thus, the correct answer is C.




3 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Statements and Arguments

Classification of Arguments



1.    Strong Argument: Strong arguments are those which are directly related to the statement, do not make extra assumptions, are valid and hold true.


2.    Weak Argument: Weak arguments are those which not related to the statement directly, may make unjustifiable assumptions, are false, vague or invalid.


Example:


Statement: Are nuclear families better than joint families?


Arguments:


I.  No. Joint families ensure security and also reduce the burden of work.


II.  Yes. Nuclear families ensure greater freedom.


With so many people around in a joint family, there is more security. Also, work is shared. Again, in nuclear families, there are lesser number of people and so lesser responsibilities and more freedom. Both arguments are Strong.




Tip #1: Arguments with unjustifiable assumptions are weak



Statement: Should the education at all levels be offered only in vernacular medium?


Arguments:


I.    Yes. This is the only way to enhance performance of the students.


II.    No. This will severely affect acquiring knowledge for want of good text books in vernacular medium.




A.   Only argument I is strong            


B.   Only argument II is strong


C.   Either I or II is strong                  


D.   Neither I nor II is strong


E.    Both I and II are strong


Solution:


In (I) it is assumed that offering education in vernacular is the only way to enhance performance of the students. But, this assumption is not justifiable. Hence (I) is weak.


Argument (II) is strong since offering books in English or other languages would open up more avenues for Students.


So the correct answer is B.


Statement: Should girls learn arts like judo and karate?


Arguments:


(I)   Yes. It will enable them to defend themselves from rogues and ruffians.                   


(II) No. They will lose their feminine grace.


Solution:


Learning martial arts is necessary for girls for self-defense. So, argument (I) is strong.


In argument (II), it is assumed without justification that martial arts will impact feminine grace.


Thus, the answer will be A.




Tip #2: If an argument is not scientific or contradicts your general knowledge or goes against research by reputed organizations, it is weak

Statement: Should books by only deserving authors be published?


Arguments:


(I)   Yes. It will save a lot of paper which is in short supply.


(II) No. It is not possible to draw a line between the deserving and the undeserving.




A.   Only argument I is strong            


B.   Only argument II is strong


C.   Either I or II is strong                  


D.   Neither I nor II is strong


E.    Both I and II are strong


Solution:


Argument (I) says that paper is in short supply. But, this is not something we have ever heard in the news. It is contradictory to our general knowledge and is therefore weak.


Argument (II) is a strong argument because establishing committees to control the publishing of books would be against freedom of speech. Such committees would also be partial and have their own agendas.


So the correct answer is B.




Tip #3: Arguments that are illogical and unrelated to the statement are weak



Statement: Should all the school teachers be debarred from giving private tuitions?


Arguments:


(I)   No. The needy students will be deprived of the expertise of these teachers.


(II) Yes. This is an injustice to the unemployed educated people who can earn their living by giving tuitions.


(III)        Yes. Only then the quality of teaching in schools will improve.


(IV)        Yes. Now salary of these teachers is reasonable.




A.   Only I and III are strong   


B.   Only I, II and III are strong


C.   Only III and IV are strong 


D.   Only II, III and IV are strong       


E.    None of these


Solution:


Argument (I) is weak because needy students will not be deprived of their education in schools, if those teachers also offer private tuitions on the side.


Argument (II) is weak because other unemployed individuals can also hold private tuitions if they are capable of doing so.


Argument (III) is strong. There could be a tendency for teachers to reduce their efforts in schools to encourage more students to join their private tuition classes.


Argument (IV) is weak. By what standards can anyone decide to stop a worker from seeking further employment by deciding that their salary is already reasonable?


Thus, the correct answer is E.




5 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Conclusions and Course of Action

Tip #1: Conclusion drawn on the basis of data not provided in the statement(s) does not hold



Statements:  In a one-day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners.


Conclusions: (I) 80% of the team consists of spinners.


                   (II) The opening batsmen were spinners.


A.   Only conclusion I follows


B.   Only conclusion II follows


C.   Either I or II follows                    


D.   Neither I nor II follows


E.    Both I and II follow


Solution:


Nothing has been said in the statements about the number of spinners or the batsmen. So both conclusions do not follow. Hence the correct option is D.


Statement: Any student who does not behave properly while in the school brings bad name to himself and also for the school.


Conclusions: (I) Such student should be removed from the school.


                      (II) Stricter discipline does not improve behavior of the students.


A.   Only conclusion I follows           


B.   Only conclusion II follows


C.   Either I or II follows                    


D.   Neither I nor II follows


E.    Both I and II follow




Solution:


The statement mentions nothing about disciplinary action against misbehaving students, so none of the conclusions follows. The correct answer is D.




Tip #2: Conclusions with definitive qualifiers (all, no one, at least) require stringent support to be valid



Statements: A forest has as many sandal trees as it has Ashoka trees. Three-fourth of the trees are old ones and half of the trees are at the flowering stage.


A.   All Ashoka trees are at the flowering stage.


B.   All sandal trees are at the flowering stage.


C.   At least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old.


D.   One-half of the sandal trees are at the flowering stage.


E.    None of these


Solution:


Conclusions A, B, C do not hold because of the presence of definitive words ‘all’ and ‘at least’ when the statements do not provide such definite information. D does not follow because nothing has been said about the fraction of sandal trees in flowering stage. Thus, the answer is E.


Statement: Money plays a vital role in politics.


Conclusion: (I) The poor cannot become politicians. (II) All rich men take part in politics.


A.   Only conclusion I follows  


B.   Only conclusion II follows


C.   Either I or II follows         


D.   Neither I nor II follows               


E.    Both I and II follow


Solution:


None of the conclusions follows since they are definitive whereas the given statement is not. Hence the correct answer is D.




Tip #3: Conclusion should not contradict your common sense and general knowledge



Statements: Our securities investments carry market risk. Consult your investment advisor or agent before investing.


Conclusions: (I) One should not invest in securities.


                    (II) The investment advisor can reasonably estimate the market risk


A.   Only conclusion I follows          


B.   Only conclusion II follows


C.   Either I or II follows                  


D.   Neither I nor II follows               


E.    Both I and II follow


Solution:


Investment in securities involves risk but this does not mean that one should not invest in securities. So I does not follow. Since the statement advises one to consult investment advisor before investing, so II follows. Thus the correct answer is B.


Statements: Soldiers serve their country.


A.   Men generally serve their country.


B.   Those who serve their country are soldiers.


C.   Some men who are soldiers serve their country.


D.   Women do not serve their country because they are not soldiers.


Solution:


Conclusion A does not follow since it is ambiguous. Again, B does not hold since soldiers are not the only people serving their country. Conclusion D does not hold because it contradicts the fact that women can also be soldiers. C is the answer.




Tip #4: There must be no extremity involved in the course of action



Statement: The members belonging to two local societies occasionally fight with each other on the main highway and traffic is jammed always.


Courses of Action:


I.         The local police station should immediately deploy policemen round the clock on the main highway.


II.         Those involved in fighting should be identified and put behind bars.


III.         Local authority should cease the management of the two societies with immediate effect.




A.   Only I and II        


B.   Only I and III       


C.   Only II and II    


D.   All of I, II, III     


E.    None


Solution: 


To stop the fighting, the police must deploy troops and the culprits must be put behind bars to deter them from causing such scenes in the future, so I and II follow. The 3rd course of action would be extreme. So the answer is A.




Tip #5: The course of action should be justified based on the statement



Statement: The Company X has rejected the first load of valves supplied by Company A and has cancelled its entire huge order quoting use of inferior quality material and poor craftsmanship.


Courses of Action:  


I.         The Company A needs to investigate functioning of its purchase, production and quality control departments.


II.         The Company A should inspect all the valves rejected by Company X.


III.         The Company A should inform Company X that steps have been taken for improvement and renegotiate schedule of supply.




A.   Only I and II        


B.   Only I and III       


C.   Only II and II    


D.   All of I, II, III     


E.    None


Solution:


First of all, company A should inspect the rejected valves to ensure if they are really substandard. If so, it should scrutinize its working thoroughly and fix its quality issues. III is not justified from the statement, because the quality errors have not been fixed and issuing a statement to Company X to that effect would be a lie. The answer is A.



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Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Seating Arrangement

TIP on cracking Reasoning Questions on Seating Arrangement



Draw a diagram to illustrate the problem:



Question: A, P, R, X, S and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the center. A and P are at the ends. R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of P?


A. A               B. X               C. S               D. Z


Solution:

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement


A has to be at the right end otherwise there would be no place to A’s left for R to occupy. S and Z are seated at the central positions, although the specific order in which they are seated is not mentioned. This leaves only 1 space vacant, i.e., next to P and only 1 person, i.e., X. Hence the answer is B.


Question: 6 friends are sitting in a circle and facing the center of the circle. Deepa is between Prakash and Pankaj. Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. Prakash and Mukesh are opposite to each other. Who is sitting right to Prakash?


A. Mukesh     B. Pankaj       C. Pankaj       D. Lalit


Solution:       

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement


Fixing Prakash’s position, we find Mukesh’s position. Deepa is between Pankaj and Prakash, and this can be on either side of Prakash. Now, Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. This can happen when they are on the opposite side of Prakash. So, either Lalit or Deepa will be to the right of Prakash. So the correct option is D.


(contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/76-seating-arrangement/1-tips-on-seating-arrangement/


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Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Seating Arrangement

TIP on cracking Reasoning Questions on Seating Arrangement



Draw a diagram to illustrate the problem:



Question: A, P, R, X, S and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the center. A and P are at the ends. R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of P?


A. A               B. X               C. S               D. Z


Solution:

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement


A has to be at the right end otherwise there would be no place to A’s left for R to occupy. S and Z are seated at the central positions, although the specific order in which they are seated is not mentioned. This leaves only 1 space vacant, i.e., next to P and only 1 person, i.e., X. Hence the answer is B.


Question: 6 friends are sitting in a circle and facing the center of the circle. Deepa is between Prakash and Pankaj. Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. Prakash and Mukesh are opposite to each other. Who is sitting right to Prakash?


A. Mukesh     B. Pankaj       C. Pankaj       D. Lalit


Solution:       

(See Image..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement


Fixing Prakash’s position, we find Mukesh’s position. Deepa is between Pankaj and Prakash, and this can be on either side of Prakash. Now, Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. This can happen when they are on the opposite side of Prakash. So, either Lalit or Deepa will be to the right of Prakash. So the correct option is D.


(contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/76-seating-arrangement/1-tips-on-seating-arrangement/


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Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Number Series

3 Tips on Solving Reasoning Questions on Number Series


Tip #1: Arithmetic Series, Geometric Series, Patterns in Differences


(1) Arithmetic Series: When the differences between the successive numbers given in the series is the same. For example: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14... (Here the difference between the numbers is 3, hence the next number will be 17)


(2) Geometric Series: When each successive number in the series is obtained by multiplying or dividing the previous one by a fixed number. For example: 2, 6, 18, 72,…


(3) Patterns in differences: Calculate the differences between the numbers given in the series provided in the question. Then try to observe the pattern in the new set of numbers that you have obtained after taking out the difference.


Question: Look at this series: V, VIII, XI, XIV, __, XX, ... What number should fill the blank?


Solution:


This is an arithmetic series in Roman numerals; each no. is 3 more than the previous one. Thus, the missing number will be the Roman equivalent of 20 – 3 = 17, i.e., XVII.


Question: Look at this series: 201, 202, 204, 207, ... What number should come next?


Solution:


The difference between the successive numbers is 1, 2, 3 respectively. Thus, the difference keeps on increasing by 1. Thus, the next number in the series will be 207 + 4 = 211.




Tip #2: Pattern in Alternate/Adjacent numbers


1.    Pattern in Alternate numbers: When there is a pattern between every alternate or third number in the series. For example: 2, 9, 5, 12, 8 , 15, 11....


2.    (2) Pattern in adjacent number: When adjacent numbers in the series changes based on a logical pattern. For example: 2, 4, 12, 48... Here the numbers are being multiplied by 2, then by 3, then by 4 etc.


Question: Look at this series: F2, __, D8, C16, B32, ... What number should fill the blank?


Solution:


This is a complex series in which the successive letters decrease by 1 and the successive numbers are multiplied by 2. Thus, the number in the blank will be E4.


Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next.


42 40 38 35 33 31 28


A. 25, 22                    B. 26, 23                   C. 26, 24                   D. 25, 23


Solution:


This is an alternating subtraction series in which 2 is subtracted twice, then 3 is subtracted once, then 2 is subtracted twice, and so on. So the next terms in the following series will be 26 and 24. Thus the correct answer is C.




Tip #3: Prime Numbers, Squares/Cubes, Alternate primes/exponents


(1) Squares/Cubes: When numbers are a series of perfect squares. For example: 81, 100, 121, 144, 169...


(2) Cube/Square roots: When the numbers are a series of perfect cubes. For example: 512, 729, 1000...


(3) Alternate Primes: Here the series is framed by taking the alternative prime numbers. For example: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 31…


Question: Look at this series: 4, 7, 16, 13, __, 19, 64, 29, ... What number should fill the blank?


Solution:


There are two alternating series here. The first one is the square of the multiples of 2 {22, 42, 62, 82 …} and the second one is a series of alternating prime numbers. The missing number is a part of the first series so the missing number is 62 = 36.


Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next.


4  7  26  10 13 20 16


A. 14, 17                     B. 18, 14     C. 19, 13       D. 19, 14


Solution:


Two patterns alternate here, with every third number following the alternate pattern. In the main series, beginning with 4, 3 is added to each number to arrive at the next. In the alternating series, beginning with 26, 6 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. So the next numbers will be 16 + 3 = 19, 20 – 6 = 14. Thus, the correct answer is D.


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