srijit.cse SaysPlease let me know from where to prepare for GK in IRMA,which books or magazines i should refer.Thanks
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Please let me know from where to prepare for GK in IRMA,which books or magazines i should refer.Thanks
An industrial undertaking in which the investment in fixed assets in plant and machinery whether held on ownership terms on lease or on hire purchase does not exceed Rs 10 million.
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the common sense. We are made up of two unique development institutions owned by 184 member countriesthe International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Each institution plays a different but supportive role in our mission of global poverty reduction and the improvement of living standards. The IBRD focuses on middle income and creditworthy poor countries, while IDA focuses on the poorest countries in the world. Together we provide low-interest loans, interest-free credit and grants to developing countries for education, health, infrastructure, communications and many other purposes.
President: Paul Wolfowitz
A world of development experience
UNDP is the UN's global development network, an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. We are on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.
World leaders have pledged to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, including the overarching goal of cutting poverty in half by 2015. UNDP's network links and coordinates global and national efforts to reach these Goals. Our focus is helping countries build and share solutions to the challenges of:
The annual Human Development Report, commissioned by UNDP, focuses the global debate on key development issues, providing new measurement tools, innovative analysis and often controversial policy proposals. The global Report's analytical framework and inclusive approach carry over into regional, national and local Human Development Reports, also supported by UNDP.
In each country office, the UNDP Resident Representative normally also serves as the Resident Coordinator of development activities for the United Nations system as a whole. Through such coordination, UNDP seeks to ensure the most effective use of UN and international aid resources.
Putting information within reach.Sharing policy expertise.Providing a meeting place for nations.Bringing knowledge to the field.
What they are
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability. They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health, education, shelter, and security.
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and PovertyGoal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenGoal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal HealthGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseasesGoal 7: Ensure Environmental SustainabilityGoal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
The world has made significant progress in achieving many of the Goals. Between 1990 and 2002 average overall incomes increased by approximately 21 percent. The number of people in extreme poverty declined by an estimated 130 million 1. Child mortality rates fell from 103 deaths per 1,000 live births a year to 88. Life expectancy rose from 63 years to nearly 65 years. An additional 8 percent of the developing world's people received access to water. And an additional 15 percent acquired access to improved sanitation services.
But progress has been far from uniform across the world-or across the Goals. There are huge disparities across and within countries. Within countries, poverty is greatest for rural areas, though urban poverty is also extensive, growing, and underreported by traditional indicators.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of crisis, with continuing food insecurity, a rise of extreme poverty, stunningly high child and maternal mortality, and large numbers of people living in slums, and a widespread shortfall for most of the MDGs. Asia is the region with the fastest progress, but even there hundreds of millions of people remain in extreme poverty, and even fast-growing countries fail to achieve some of the non-income Goals. Other regions have mixed records, notably Latin America, the transition economies, and the Middle East and North Africa, often with slow or no progress on some of the Goals and persistent inequalities undermining progress on others.
UN Millennium Project | About the Goals
The country today has an impressive telecom network both in the private and Government sector. Over 5 lakh villages have a public telephone in the country. It has been felt for long that this impressive telecom network could be put to effective use for delivering knowledge and information to the farming community. A call centre based extension service will be delivering knowledge and information exactly as per the requirements of the farming community. This system would also help keep a record of what is being delivered to the farmers in terms of knowledge and information. The Kisan Call Centre scheme is available over the complete country. The Kisan Call Centre scheme has been functioning from 21.1.04. The Call Centres can be accessed by farmers all over the country on common Toll Free Number 1551.
Recognizing the importance of horticulture sector in the growth of Indian agriculture, Honourable Finance Minister announced launching of National Horticulture Mission in his budget speech on July 8, 2004. The horticulture sector includes fruit, vegetables, spices, medicinal & aromatic plants, flowers, mushroom and a variety of plantation crops like coconut, arecanut, cashewnut and cocoa which has been contributing significantly to the GDP in agriculture (28.5 per cent from 8.5 per cent area).
The Mission is in the process of being set up. The objectives of the National Horticulture Mission will be Doubling the horticulture production, i.e. to achieve a production of 300 million tonnes by 2011-12.
Q-1: What is a Watershed?
Watershed is a geo-hydrological unit of an area draining to a common outlet point. It is recognized as an ideal unit for planning & development of land water and vegetation resources.
Q-2: How much area is rainfed, out of cultivated area in the country?
According to 1999-2000 statistics, a net sown area of 141.23 million hectare is under cultivation, out of which 84.58 million hectare is rainfed area.
Q-3: Is there any perspective plan to treat entire rainfed area in the country?
Planning Commission, in its working group report has proposed to develop all the waste land / rainfed areas (88.5 million ha.) in a period of 20 years (i.e. upto XIII Five Year Plan) at a cost of Rs.72750 crore with peoples participation.
Q-4: What is the extent of coverage of areas under various schemes / programmes of Department of Agriculture & Cooperation?
Through various watershed development programmes, about 17.6 million ha. of land has so far been developed at an expenditure of Rs.9371 crores, including external funding upto March, 2005. During X Five Year Plan about 3.4 million ha. is proposed to be developed at an outlay of Rs.2000 crore excluding externally aided projects.
Q-5: Which are the activities taken up under NWDPRA programme?
The activities undertaken in this programme include soil and moisture conservation measures like construction of check dams, water harvesting structures, desilting of village ponds, treatment of drainage lines/ gullies, land leveling, bunding of farms, treatment of problem soils, agro-forestry, agri- horticulture,silvi-pasture, organic farming, use of bio-fertilizers, value addition and marketing of produce through farmers groups, training & capacity building of staff & beneficiaries etc.
Q-6: What are the impacts of NWDPRA programme in the watershed area?
Impact evaluation studies both on the ground and through remote sensing techniques have shown that watershed based interventions have led to increase in groundwater recharge,increase in number of wells and water bodies, enhancement of cropping intensity, changes in cropping pattern, and higher yields of crops and reduction in soil losses.
Q-7: Which watershed development programmes of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation of Ministry of Agriculture are being implemented?
The following watershed development programmes are being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture during X Five Year Plan:
Ministry of Agriculture
(i) National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)
(ii) Soil Conservation in the catchments of River Valley Project and Flood Prone Rivers (RVP & FPR)
(iii) Watershed Development Project in shifting cultivation Areas (WDPSCA)
(iv) Watershed Development Fund (WDF)