11. How is the Hotness of a Chili pepper measured? The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers, or other spicy foods, as reported in Scoville heat units (SHU), a function of capsaicin concentration. Capsaicin is one of many related pungent compounds found in chili peppers, collectively called capsaicinoids. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville whose 1912 method is known as the Scoville organoleptic test. In the early 20th Century, Wilbur Scoville devised this system reflecting the volume of water required until chili heat could still be felt by a taster. The more water, the hotter. Today, we still use the scale, but with more sophisticated methods.
10. Why All Airplane Windows Round Not Square Or Rectangle? As commercial air travel took off in the mid-20th century, airline companies began to fly at higher altitudes to save money—the air density is lower up there, creating less drag for airplanes. But for passengers to survive at 30,000 feet, the cabin must be pressurized. To make that possible, the cabin was changed to a cylindrical shape to support the internal pressure. But at first, plane builders left in the standard square. As a result of this, in the year 1953, two airplanes fell apart during flight which resulted in 56 causalities. After their investigation was done, it was concluded that the reason for the crash was the rectangle shaped airplane windows. In an airplane, during the flight, there can be any corner in the fuselage that can become a weak spot. This weak spot eventually becomes a potential danger as it can cause a mechanical failure and put the lives of people in peril. Fortunately, designers figured out the design flaw pretty quick. Now we have nice, round windows that can withstand the pressure of cruising altitude.
9. How does Breathalyzer work? A breathalyzer or breathalyser (a portmanteau of breath and analyzer/analyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. Breathalyzer is the brand name (a genericized trademark) for the instrument that tests the alcohol level developed by inventor Robert Frank Borkenstein. It was registered as a trademark on May 13, 1954, but many people use the term to refer to any generic device for estimating blood alcohol content. When the user exhales into a breath analyzer, any ethanol present in their breath is oxidized to acetic acid at the anode. At the cathode, atmospheric oxygen is reduced. The overall reaction is the oxidation of ethenol to acetic acid and water. The electric current produced by this reaction is measured by a microcontroller, and displayed as an approximation of overall blood alcohol content (BAC) by the Alcosensor.
8. How does Oysters make pearls? A natural pearl begins its life inside an oyster's shell when an intruder, such as a grain of sand or bit of floating food, slips in between one of the two shells of the oyster, a type of mollusk, and the protective layer that covers the mollusk's organs, called the mantle. In order to protect itself from irritation, the oyster will quickly begin covering the uninvited visitor with layers of nacre — the mineral substance that fashions the mollusk's shells. Layer upon layer of nacre, also known as mother-of-pearl, coat the grain of sand until the iridescent gem is formed. Cultured pearls are made in the same way. The only difference is that instead of accidental circumstances, a "pearl farmer" embeds a grain of sand into the mollusk.
7. Why does Camphor move on water? On pure fresh water it moves due to surface tension differential. Camphor has the capacity to dissolve in the water easily. Hence surface tension of water decreases. So water moves from the region of high surface tension to the region of low surface tension. Due to the movement of water, the leaf or paper ship moves forward based on the Newton’s third law of motion. But after a lot of camphor dissolved, this differential may not be there and no movement of camphor/boat may be noted.
6. What causes skin to wrinkle with age? The skin is made up of three layers: the outermost layer everyone can see, called the epidermis. the middle layer, called the dermis. the innermost layer, called the subcutaneous layer. When we're young, we don't have wrinkles because the skin does a great job of stretching and holding in moisture. The dermis has an elastic quality thanks to fibers called elastin that keep the skin looking and feeling young. A protein in the dermis called collagen also plays a part in preventing wrinkles. But over time, the dermis loses both collagen and elastin, so skin gets thinner and has trouble getting enough moisture to the epidermis. The fat in the subcutaneous layer that gives skin a plump appearance also begins to disappear, the epidermis starts to sag, and wrinkles form.
5. How Do Trick Birthday Candles Work? Have you ever seen a trick candle? You blow it out and it 'magically' re-lights itself in a few seconds, usually accompanied by a few sparks. The difference between a normal candle and a trick candle is what happens just after you blow it out. When you blow out a normal candle, you will see a thin ribbon of smoke rise up from the wick. This is vaporized paraffin (candle wax). The wick ember you get when you blow out the candle is hot enough to vaporize the paraffin of the candle, but it isn't hot enough to re-ignite it. Trick candles have a material added to the wick that is capable of being ignited by the relatively low temperature of the hot wick ember. When a trick candle is blown out, the wick ember ignites this material, which burns hot enough to ignite the paraffin vapor of the candle. The flame you see in a candle is burning paraffin vapor. What substance is added to the wick of a magic candle? It's usually fine flakes of the metal magnesium. It doesn't take too much heat to make magnesium ignite (800 °F or 430 °C), but the magnesium itself burns white-hot and readily ignites the paraffin vapor. When a trick candle is blown out, the burning magnesium particles appear as tiny sparks in the wick. When the 'magic' works, one of these sparks ignites the paraffin vapor and the candle starts to burn normally again. The magnesium in the rest of the wick doesn't burn because the liquid paraffin isolates it from oxygen and keeps it cool.
4. How Astronauts communicate in space? Sound cannot travel through the vacuum of space, but visible light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation can. One of these forms is commonly called radio. The astronauts have devices in their helmets which transfer the sound waves from their voices into radio waves and transmit it to the ground (or other astronauts in space). This is exactly the same as how your radio at home works. Radio waves are often thought of as a form of sound because of their use in this way, but radio waves are NOT sound waves - they are a form of electromagnetic radiation analogous to visible light, and therefore can propagate through a vacuum.
3. How Does Gorilla Glass Work? Gorilla Glass is a special kind of glass created by Corning Inc that is used in electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets, and television screens. The type of glass Corning creates for their Gorilla Glass is aluminosilicate. This sort of glass is sand-based and is made up of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen. After the initial glass is created, the product is placed in a molten salt bath that's over 400 degrees Celsius. This heat triggers an ion-exchange process that forces the smaller sodium ions out of the glass and replaces them with larger potassium ions drawn in from the salt. This process of packing larger ions into the same sized space makes the glass significantly denser than it was originally. This is what gives Gorilla Glass its strength and flexibility. The first generation of Gorilla Glass was created in 2008 with additional iterations produced in 2012, 2013, and 2014. The fifth generation of Gorilla Glass was released in July, 2016 for general use in electronics while a new type of glass designed for smartwatches, Gorilla Glass SR+, debuted one month later.
2. Why Water droplets confuse your smart phone touch screen? Touchscreen locates your finger on the grid by measuring how much the charge drops between two intersecting electrodes, a process called “mutual capacitance.” The problem is that drops of sweat or rain can reduce the charge too by providing another conduit between the electrodes. Thankfully, over the past few years, touchscreen engineers have solved the water problem by drawing on a different mode of touch sensing called “self-capacitance.” Instead of measuring the charge across pairs of electrodes, the touchscreen measures the increase in charge between an individual electrode on the screen and the ground you’re standing on. Because water droplets aren’t grounded, the phone’s firmware is better able to ignore them. But it is also not fully successful because it won't work during multipoint touch operations like pinch, zoom etc.