Constitution of India Full Notes
1.Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly and the assembly was constituted in 1946.
The document containing laws and rules which determine and describe the form of the government, the relationship between the citizens and the government, is called a Constitution
The Constituent Assembly, following the partition of the country in 1947, consisted of 299 members as on 31st December 1947. Of these 229 members were elected by the provincial assemblies and the rest were nominated by the rulers of the princely states.
The Constituent Assembly was chaired by the President of the Assembly Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Assembly.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee. The task of the Committee was to prepare the draft of the Constitution
The Constitutent Assembly met for 166 days spread over a period of 2 years 11months and 18 days.
The constitution was enforced with effect from January 26, 1950. From that day India became a Republic. Exactly twenty years before the first independence day was celebrated on Jan. 26, 1930 as decided by the Lahore session of the Congress on Dec. 31, 1929. Hence, January 26, 1950 was decided as the day to enforce the constitution.
The Indian constitution is the lengthiest in the world. The original constitution had 395 Articles and 8 Schedules
The Constitution of India provides for three categories of amendments. In the first category, amendment can be done by the two houses of Parliament simple majority of the members present and voting of before sending it for the President's assent.
In the second category amendments require a special majority. Such an amendment can be passed by each House of Parliament by a majority of the total members of that House as well as by the 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting in each house of Parliament and send to the President for his assent which cannot be denied
In the third category besides the special majority mentioned in the second category, the same has to be approved also by at least 50% of the State legislatures. Thus, you see that the Indian Constitution provides for the type of amendments ranging from simple to most difficult procedure depending on the nature of the amendment.
The Supreme Court has been established to guard the constitution and hence it is called Guardian of the constitution.