CGPSC ABEO-2013

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Chhattisgarh PSC oncoming exams like CG State Service Exam 2013, ABEO 2013, MCQs, Exam Pattern, Cutoffs etc.. * *A brave, frank, clean-hearted, courageous and aspiring youth is the only foundation on which the future nation can be built.*\- ...
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😃 😃

Assistant Commissioner at Directorate of Industries UP Govt.
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HELLO FRIENDS CAN U PLEASE UPLOAD Q PAPER OF ABEO 2013....

ye babu rao ka style hai.....
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Principal of Sahid Shmarak School accepts that seals of 50 sets was found to be broken. Now wat next.. Dont know...

Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
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Overall expecting Cutoff may hover around 320/600 in open category..

Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

ya right around 75-80 present

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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

in my room 5 were absent out of 28

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SHOCKING...
Exam paper were leaked from center- Sahid Shmarak School. As told by candidates that lot of papers of Set-A has broken seal..
-from Media Sources

Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

Will PSC think to reschedule d exam..?

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hi all plz discuss hwz ur paper of abeo was gone...

as according to me paper1 tough to crack!!!

lot of qs from Economic statue of cg..

paper2 is quite moderate n easy to task.. paper1 is decider an in my point of view..

................ splat

Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

it means u've total 520/600 as accord 120+140 qs may possibl u rankd 1st also

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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

by 90+100 also ul scorin 480 by dis also top 10 ranking possibl u dnt worry...

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Hi priyanka, osama, n all my abeo aspirants time has to come to prove ourself..
So wishin u All d Best... GudLuck... 👍
Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
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priyanka22s
@priyanka22s  ·  0 karma

Best of Luck u2 ronin.. 😃

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Classroom Ecology


The Physical Environment

Classroom Climate

The Psychological Environment

The Role of the Teacher in the Classroom Environment

Measuring Classroom Environment

Implications and Considerations


Classroom environment encompasses a broad range of educational concepts, including the physical setting, the psychological environment created through social contexts, and numerous instructional components related to teacher characteristics and behaviors. The study classroom environment has been widespread across nearly all subspecializations of educational psychology. Researchers are interested in relationships between environment constructs and multiple outcomes, including learning, engagement, motivation, social relationships, and group dynamics. Early researchers recognized that behavior is a function of people's personal characteristics and their environment.

In the educational setting, Urie Bronfenbrenner's work on ecological contexts secured a place in educational research for studies of classroom environment. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbren-ner, 1977) encompasses the layered environmental system of microcosms in which human development takes place and emphasizes the importance of family, teachers, schools, and the larger sociocultural environment on the developmental process. Over the years this research has evolved from examining purely physical elements of the environment to more complex models of psychosocial relationships between students in the classrooms as well as between the teacher and students.

Research beginning in the mid-1990s has focused on one or more of these aspects and has associated classroom environment variables with numerous positive and negative student outcomes. In addition to the wide array of outcomes investigated in relationship to classroom environment, this area of study has also been of interest to methodologists as the data structure poses a unit of analysis dilemma; in terms of examining classroom variables in combination with student outcomes, researchers have had to determine if the data would be analyzed at the classroom level or at the student level. With the arrival in the 1990s of statistical methodologies capable of handling data collected from both levels, studies have been better able to include variables collected at both levels. Various methodologies, including survey, observations, and interviews have been used to capture aspects of the classroom environment from student, teacher, and observer perspectives. The Early Childhood group based at the University of Virginia has an extensive body of work that examines classroom environment as a validated observation system of multiple dimensions of the classroom.

The Physical Environment

More frequently a focus in earlier studies of classroom environment, the physical environment has continued to appear in contemporary studies as an influence on behavioral and academic outcomes. Current studies of the physical environment have investigated aspects such as class composition, class size, and classroom management.

Class composition studies examine classroom grouping methods, including ability grouping of students, single-sex classrooms and cooperative learning groups. Research has found that classrooms with highly cooperative groups appear to have students with more positive perceptions of fairness in grading, stronger class cohesion, and higher degree of social support, as well as higher achievement scores. Female students have been found to prefer collaborating with other students when studying and resolving problems, and they have a stronger preference for teacher support than male students. The primary school environments tend to use collaborative strategies more frequently and have higher levels of teacher involvement and support than is found in secondary schools. Research on single-sex classrooms has been more divided in terms of academic outcome research. Some studies found that girls do better in math and science particularly when separated from male students; other studies found no achievement differences between genders when either in single-sex or mixed-sex classrooms.

Studies about class size have examined how class size influences student and teacher behaviors. In general, smaller classes are associated with students who are less stressed and are more frequently on-task with fewer reported behavior problems than students in larger classes. Although teachers tend to use similar instructional strategies whether teaching large or small classes, there is some evidence to suggest that more class time is spent on administrative tasks for larger classes, leaving less time available for instruction. Some research has suggested that differences in academic outcomes based on class size are due to differences in student behaviors.

Overcrowded facilities, too many students in certain classes, and lack of teachers' assistants are three major issues cited as potentially creating problems due to increased stress levels of students and increased teacher-reported incidences of behavioral problems. These increased stress levels and behavior problems found in larger classrooms are frequently accompanied by lower levels of academic achievement.

Teacher-to-child ratios are also of interest to many researchers because the number of reported behavioral problems seem to increase as class size increases. Many researchers have observed that large classes, with 30 or more students, tend to have a larger number of students off task more often with fewer students engaged with the teacher than children in small classes of 20 students or less. Yet there may be a social cost for students in small classes; other researchers found that smaller classes also had high incidences of children engaging in a social and exclusionary behavior. Whether students are engaging in on-task or disruptive behavior can also be influenced by effective classroom management instructions and consistency of teacher enforcement.

The timing of classroom management and organization also impacts students' perceptions of the teacher as an

Classroom Climate

Part of the larger focus on school improvement is School Climate or Educational Climate, which defines how teachers interact with each other and with administrators. This is different from Classroom Climate, which identifies relationships among students with each other, the teacher and how this translates into learning.

There are a number of tools available to determine Classroom Climate and then to use the results as part of the comprehensive plan for school improvement. Even the most sophisticated measurement tools rely heavily on opinion and perception. Opinion is generated from information, statistics on student and teacher performance, while perception is based on observation of the behaviors in the classroom and the school.

In determining Classroom Climate, it is important to apply information gathered from both opinion and perception to form a comprehensive picture of student success and to therefore create a meaningful school improvement plan.

Opinion is generated by reviewing student test scores, grades earned, attendance, health and family. Perception is formed by observation and by paper and pencil tools that evaluate Classroom Climate based on organization of the classroom, the attitude toward student achievement, the attitudes toward school, the attitudes toward peers, the degree of democracy experienced in the classroom, the acceptance of diversity, the range of learning experiences, the autonomy of the teacher, the competitiveness among students, the consistency of interpretation of rule infractions and their consequences.

Elizabeth Soby

effective manager. When students have been asked to describe effective classroom managers, researchers report that these are teachers who set clear expectations and consequences early in the year. They also describe teachers who consistently (and predictably) follow through with consequences, as opposed to merely threatening consequences. These characteristics appear essential in establishing good classroom environment in terms of social support and mutual respect. Additionally, the amount of time a teacher spends in teaching organizational behaviors impacts the classroom environment. Researchers have found that students in classrooms that spent more time early in the school year on organizational instruction substantially increased the amount of time students spent in student-managed activities later in the academic year. Intentionally providing organizational instruction at the start of the academic year is a characteristic of an effective classroom environment manager.

The Psychological Environment

Beyond the physical arrangement of a classroom a psychological environment is also created, based on the interaction of key players in the classroom, namely students and teachers. Research in this area has varied greatly and proliferated during the early twenty-first century. Studies have been particularly concentrated on student class participation rates, teacher support, and communication of learning goals.

Many teachers equate student engagement and on-task behavior with classroom participation, typically a top concern for teachers. Researchers support teachers' intuition of a difference in the participation style of the different genders. Whereas girls are more likely to participate as part of the relational responsibility they feel toward the teacher, boys tend to respond more often if they feel the class is interesting and less often if the class is perceived as boring €”indicating that for these students, teachers may be equally responsible for the participation level and learning. Most studies have found that boys speak out in class about three times as frequently as girls do; however, both genders typically perceive girls as better class participants. Although responses vary when students are asked what participation consists of, the most common response, and one frequently examined by researchers, is that participation is defined as answering questions when specifically asked. Both boys and girls seem to indicate a need for relational aspects to be present inorder for this type of participation to occur; however, whereas girls more frequently participate by responding to teachers' questions, boys are more likely to participate as a means of obtaining attention or being noticed by the teacher. Teachers who want to encourage development of relational aspects for both genders may need to utilize different acknowledgement techniques for male students to enhance their perceptions of feeling supported as a class participant.

The notion of feeling supported as students has also been extensively examined in the classroom environment literature. Helen Patrick and colleagues (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007) found that there is a strong, positive relationship between students' level of motivation and engagement and their perceptions of the classroom environment as being socially supportive. The perception of a climate of mutual respect is required in order for students to increase their use of effective study strategies and increase feelings of confidence about their ability to successfully complete assignments. Furthermore, when students perceive that they receive emotional support and encouragement from their teachers and academic support from their peers they are more likely to be on-task in the classroom and use self-regulated strategies.

Another large body of educational research has focused on the communication of learning goals to students in combination with the individual goals and expectations of students. Some students and classrooms are more focused on obtaining grades than on mastery of objectives; these students and classrooms are said to be performance oriented rather than mastery oriented. A multitude of studies have examined this social-cognitive aspect of classrooms and found that the classroom-level learning goal can be linked to both behavioral and academic outcomes. Students in classrooms where performance is emphasized are more likely to engage in cheating, avoid help-seeking, and exhibit lower levels of academic engagement. In contrast, students who are in a classroom where the focus is on learning and improvement demonstrate higher levels of self-efficacy and engagement as well as more positive affect. At the personal goal level researchers have found that whereas students who are more focused on grades tend to have higher grades, those students who are more focused on mastering objectives tend to engage in more academically challenging tasks and retain information learned for a longer period of time.

The Role of the Teacher in the Classroom Environment

The third focus of many examinations ofclassroom environment has been on teacher behaviors, specifically teacher development and school culture and how these components affect classroom environment. Some research suggests that due to the complexity of cultivating an effective classroom environment, it may be beyond the developmental scope of the newly graduated teacher. Some researchers recommend that professional development for new teachers should include intense mentoring and teaching partnerships that reduce isolation and form productive and meaningful relationships with other adults in the school community.

Following the research studies on physical and psychological environment many suggestions for teachers have been presented in the literature, including classroom management plans and recommendations for building better relationships with students. Classroom rules and procedures should be introduced early in the school year and consequences should be enforced consistently across students and throughout the school year. Research has shown that routine and fairness have a positive impact on behavior as well as academic quality. It has been found that teachers who run respectful classrooms are in turn more respected by their students, and students believe that these teachers also hold higher learning expectations. Teachers are encouraged to focus more on the learning task than on the outcome or grade assigned at the end of the task, although this becomes much more difficult if the emphasis in education is placed on accountability and high-stakes testing.

Although most classroom environment studies are by definition limited to classrooms, a few studies have investigated the impact of the school culture on classroom environment. Findings suggest that schools with an authoritative culture (e.g., clear direction, delegation of responsibilities, accountability to and from all) tend to be judged by students and teachers as being successful. Schools that lack leadership or have a culture of multiple micro-conflicts tend to be perceived by students and teachers as undermining educational gains.

Measuring Classroom Environment

In studies of classroom environment a plethora of measurement tools have been employed, including direct, objective observational measures as well as more subjective perceptions of the classroom environment. The types of items that have been used range from low inference (e.g., frequency counts of behavior) to high inference (e.g., classroom members' perceptions about meaning of behaviors). There has been a heavy reliance on perceptual measures in much of the literature, supported by the argument that observational measures tend to be low-inference based and are of a limited time period, whereas perception measures better capture high-inference constructs, and therefore better represent day to day experience in the environment. Moreover, advances in statistical analyses have allowed for better incorporation of multiple student observations in one classroom to be aggregated as a measure of classroom environment. In contrast, an objective observation tool is limited to a single opinion or an agreement statistics between two or three independent observers.

Some of the most extensive work on measuring classroom environment was completed in the 1970s by Rudolf Moos, resulting in the widely used Classroom Environment Scale (Moos, 1979). Moos's work, which has permeated the literature on classroom environment, is based on three essential areas of classroom environment: (1) Relationship dimension, which focuses on the interpersonal relationships between students and students and the teacher in a classroom; (2) Personal Development dimension, which centers on individual characteristics of the classroom member; and (3) System Maintenance and Change dimension which includes attributes such as classroom control and order as well as responsiveness to change. As delineated above, much of the research on classroom environment has also been attuned to these three dimensions or combinations thereof.

The mid-1990s was marked by a shift to more high-inference measures such as the What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) Questionnaire developed by Barry Fraser and colleagues (Fraser, 2002). This scale focuses entirely on student perceptions of a wide range of dimensions of the classroom, including student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation, cooperation, and equity. Each of the dimensions in the WIHIC can be mapped to three major dimensions of Moos's schema.

While these two measures continue to appear in the research literature, there are many other ways to measure classroom environment. As theories of learning continue to evolve the need to create and validate more measures of classroom environment continues to grow. Just as it is difficult to provide a concise definition of what classroom environment is, it is also difficult to define a measure of the construct, resulting in a multitude of varieties and variations in the literature.

Implications and Considerations

Classroom environment is a broad term and the research in this area is far reaching and defined in many different ways according to theory as well as practice. Regardless of the definition, there are many important findings from the research as a whole that can impact students' learning and behavior. This is also an area of continued growth in research as changes in technology and social culture alter the dynamics of what is considered classroom environment.

One of these areas to consider is the environment beyond the classroom. There has been debate on the impact of school-wide environment on classroom environment. With an increased importance placed on school-wide performance in order to demonstrate school success in terms of annual academic progress of students, there is undoubtedly pressure on teachers to produce high scores on standardized state exams. This school-wide demand filters to the classroom and is communicated in various ways to students, directly impacting their experiences in the classroom. There is ongoing research to examine the implications of the high-stakes testing for the psychosocial dimension of the classroom as well as how this approach has influenced instructional strategies used by teachers in classrooms.

Furthermore, the definition of classroom environment continues to evolve with the development of online courses and increased use of technology in learning situations. Classrooms are now networked, expanding the environment beyond physical walls, enabling students to interact via email, video conferencing, and blogs. The addition of technology to the classroom has changed the environment, and research is only beginning to consider these new aspects and their impacts on classroom outcomes.

Information gained from ongoing studies of classroom environment continues to impact teachers' knowledge. Learning about factors that may shape students' perceptions of their learning environment, how teachers' actions appear to students, and how changes made to the learning environment may stimulate and encourage learning continue to be of the utmost importance to classroom teachers.

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Ronin8878361515
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hi @Next_Osama how r u, how is ur prepration

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INTRODUCTION TO THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1948

UNIT STRUCTURE

1.

Learning Objectives

2.

Introduction

3.

Background and appointment of the university education commission of 1948

4.

Its Recommendations on Aims and Objectives of Higher Education

5.

Details of the Main Recommendation of the University Education

6.

Let Us Sum Up

7.

Further Readings

8.

Answers to Check Your Progress

9.

Possible Question

10.

References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After going trough this unit you will be able to

Explain the background of the University Education Commission of 1948.

Know about its Terms of Reference.

Know its Recommendations on the Aims And Objectives of Higher Education

Explain the Specific Recommendations regarding the University System of Education.

INTRODUCTION

Universities are the seats of higher learning from where the society gets its leaders in Science, Arts and various other fields of national life. University education in India aims at providing knowledge and wisdom which are necessary attributes of a well developed personality. University education is a centre for higher branches of learning. The functions of the university are varied. It provides instruction, conduct research and post-graduate studies, and gives affiliation and extension to the colleges under it. In case of a non-affiliating unitary university, there is no college under it and its function is limited to offering masters programme and conducting research. A university's scope is national in character. The main purpose of establishing a university in a particular region is to make higher education accessible to all sections of the population within its territorial jurisdiction. The first Education Commission of 1948, known as Radhakrishnan Commission forms the main thrust of this unit.

BACKGROUND AND APPOINTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION

After independence, the first significant step taken by the Government of India in the field of education was the appointment of the University Education Commission in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar and former vice-chancellor of Banaras Hindu University and who became the second President of India. The Commission was appointed by the Government of India to go into the problems and prospects of Indian University Education and to suggest improvements and extensions that might be considered desirable to suit the present and future requirements of the country. The Commission was appointed in November, 1948 and it submitted its report in August, 1949. The Report of the Commission is a document of great importance as it has guided the development of university education in India since independence. The Inter-University Board of Education and Central Advisory Board of Education recommended to the Government of India that an All India Commission on Education should be appointed to inquire into the requirements of the higher education in India and to put forward the recommendations for the re-organization of the University Education system in the light of the requirements of the country and its traditions. Because of the fact that Dr. Radhakrishnan was the Chairman of the Commission it is known as 'Radhakrishnan Commission'. There were 10 members in the commission. LET US KNOW Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, was -

A distinguished scholar.

Former Vice - Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.

Second President of India.

Spalding Professor of Eastern Religious and Ethics at the University of Oxford.

Chairman, University Education Commission (1948-49).

The Appointment of the Commission- its aim and objective: The Radhakrishnan Commission was appointed with the specific aim 'to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements and extensions that may be desirable to suit present and future requirements of the country'. The decision was due to the realization that a reconstruction of university education was essential for a national - cultural resurgence as well as for meeting the requirements of scientific, technical and other man – power which India needed for its socio-economic development in the wake of the independence in 1947. 1.Terms of Reference: The terms of reference of the Commission were to consider and make recommendations in regard to:

· The aims and objectives of university education and research in India.

· The changes considered necessary and desirable in the constitution, control, functions and jurisdiction of the universities in India.

· The finances of the universities.

· The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching and examinations in the universities and colleges under their control.

· The courses of study in the universities.

· The standards of admission to the university courses of study.

· The medium of instruction in the universities.

· The provision for advanced study in Indian culture, history, literatures, languages, philosophy and fine arts.

· The need for more universities on a regional or other basis.

· The organisations of advanced research in all branches of knowledge in the universities and institutes of higher research.

· Religious instruction in the universities.

· The special problems of all the universities in India.

· The qualification, conditions of service, salaries, privileges and functions of teachers and the encouragement for original research by teachers.

· The discipline of students, hostels and the organisation of tutorial work and any other student related matters.

Method of study: The commission made a thorough study of the problems of Higher Education in India. It toured the country extensively in order to acquaint itself with the problems. It prepared a questionnaire which was sent over to about 600 persons who mattered in the field of education. It interviewed administrators, organisations of the students and educationists. Thus, it tried to gather information in regard to almost all the aspects of university education. Its report runs into two volumes. The first part of the report contains 18 chapters and about 747 pages. The second volume contains the statistics in regard to institutions and other educational problems and the evidence tendered by the witnesses examined by the commission.

LET US KNOW

· University Education Commission of 1948

· Appointment of the University Education Commission: In November, 1948 the Govt. of India appointed a University Education Commission under the Chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.

· Aim of Appointment: The Commission was appointed to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements.

· Terms of Reference: The terms of reference of the Commission were ways and means for the improvement and re-organization of the University Education.

· Method of Study: The commission made a thorough study of the problems of Higher Education in India.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. In which year was the University Education Commission appointed? 2. Who was the Chairman of the Commission? 3. How many members were there in the Commission? 4. Why was the Commission appointed? 5. Mention any four major terms of Reference of the Commission in the given space.

ITS RECOMMENDATIONS ON AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER EDUCATION

The Commission has laid down certain aims of university education in the country keeping in view the past tradition, the present conditions and future prospects of the country. In this context the Commission took into consideration the personal interests of the students and also of the nation. While defining the aims the Commission had been also conscious of the international obligations. We are giving below the aims of university education as laid down by the Commission:

The aim of university education should be to produce able citizens who can take up national responsibilities successfully in various fields. The university has to produce able administrators and suitable workers in various occupations and industries. The university has to provide leadership in the various walks of life in the best interest of the nation.

The aim of a university should be to maintain a high standard in general, professional and vocational education by inspiring the students to search for a new knowledge and good effort that must be authentic in nature.

It is a duty of a university to preserve and develop the culture and civilization of the land. It is on the basis of one's culture that one may acquire self-confidence, self-respect and self-dependence. These virtues on the part of citizens will make the nation really very strong.

The university should generate new ideas and discard those which are likely to prevent the growth of the nation. For progress, it is necessary to rise above superstitions. The university has to help the students to imbibe the good aspects of their culture and to accept new values for an all - round development.

The university should provide opportunities to acquire all kinds of knowledge.

The university has to educate the mind and soul of the student in order that he may grow in wisdom.

It is the responsibility of the university to create a consciousness in students for protecting the Directive Principles as to be laid down in the Constitution. The university has to make the foundation of democracy strong and it has to develop the spirit in students for ensuring equality, fraternity and social justice to all while maintaining the integrity of the nation.

The University has to make new discoveries and inventions and it has to develop new original ideas in order to make the society strong.

The university has to instil moral values in the students while making them well disciplined.

The university has to develop the spirit of universal brotherhood and internationalism in the students.

The universities have to provide leadership in politics, administration, education, industry and commerce.

The universities should be organized as centres of civilization to train intellectual pioneers of civilization. The aim of university education should be to produce intellectual adventures.

Universities should produce such wise persons who may disseminate learning to make democracy successful and who may make an incessant search for new knowledge and unceasing effort to fulfil the mission of life.

One of the main functions of universities is to bring about the spiritual development of students.

We are engaged in a quest for democracy through the realization of justice, freedom, equality and fraternity. Hence, it is necessary that our universities should be the emblems and protectors of these ideals.

Contents of education must accept the best of what the modern advancement has to offer without neglecting our cultural heritage from the past.

Education should discover the innate qualities of a person and develop them through training.

Universities should preserve the culture and civilization of the country. To be civilized, we should sympathies with the poor, respect women, love peace and independence, and hate tyranny and injustice. The university education should infuse these ideals into the youths.

LET US KNOW Major recommendations of the University Education Commission on aims and objectives of higher education

· To teach that life has a meaning.

· To awaken the innate ability to live a meaningful life in all aspects by developing wisdom.

· To acquaint with the social philosophy this should govern all our institutions - educational as well as economic and political.

· To provide training for democracy.

· To train for self - development.

· To develop certain values like fearlessness of mind, strength of conscience and integrity of purpose.

· To acquaint with cultural heritage for its registration.

· To enable to know that education is a life - long process.

· To develop proper understanding of the present as well as of the past.

· To impart vocational and professional training.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

6. Mention any four recommendations on Aims and Objectives of Higher Education.

DETAILS OF THE MAIN RECOMMENDATION OF THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION

After having a discussion on the background and appointment of the commission as well as its basic recommendations on the aims and objectives of higher education, now we are going to discuss in detail the specific recommendations on the various aspects of the university education system in India.

Faculty in Universities: The University Education Commission has emphasized that the teacher plays a vital role in the education system; therefore, an adequate faculty with required qualifications are necessary to discharge many types of duties in a university or in a college. The university Education Commission recommended that proper care should be taken in the selection procedure of a teacher for the appointment as a professor, reader, lecturer and an instructor as well as for his or her salaries. Each university should have some research fellows. Besides theses, definite rules regarding the Provident Fund, leave and hours of work should be followed by a university.

Teaching Standards: The most important duty of a university is to maintain the highest standard of its teaching and examinations. In order to improve the teaching standard, the following are some of the recommendations that were made by the University Education Commission in 1948-1949:

· “The standard of admission to the university courses should correspond to that of the present intermediate examination, i.e. after the completion of 12 years of study at a school and an intermediate college;

· That in each province a large number of well-equipped and well staffed intermediate colleges (with classes IX to XII or XI to XII) be established;

· That in order to divert students to different vocations after 10 to 12 years of schooling, a large number of occupational institutes be opened;

· That refresher courses be organized by the universities for high school and intermediate college teachers;

· That to avoid overcrowding at universities and colleges the maximum number in the Arts and Science faculties of a teaching university be fixed at 3,000 and in an affiliated college at 1500;

· That the number of working days be substantially increased to ensure a minimum of 180 days in the year, exclusive of examination days, with three terms, each of about 11 weeks' duration;

· That lectures be carefully planned and supplemented by tutorials, library works and written exercises;

· That there be no prescribed text-books for any courses of study;

· That attendance at lectures be compulsory for under graduate students as at present, and that private candidates of only certain categories be allowed to appear for public examination. An experiment should, however, be made with the evening college for the working people;

· That tutorial instruction be developed in all institutions imparting university education in the following manner: (a) students should report to tutors in groups not exceeding 6 in numbers; (b) tutorials should be made available to all undergraduates both pass and honours; (c) tutorials should stimulate the mental development of the students and they should not become mere coaching for examination; (d) if tutorials are to succeed, the teaching staff should be improved in quality and quantity.

· That university libraries should be greatly improved by; (a) large annual grants; (b) the introduction of open access system; (c) longer hours of work; (d) better organization; and (e) well-trained staff which include reference assistants.

· That the laboratories be improved in building, fittings, equipment, workshops and technicians.” (Report of Radha-Krishnan Commission of 1948-49)

Course of study: According to the recommendations of Radhakrishnan Commission, the general as well as specific interest of the students should be taken care of when the courses will be designed for the courses of the university level. Master Degree should be given to honours students after one year's study beyond the bachelor's degree. Literature for general education courses should be developed which will give the students an acquaintance with and mastery of the contents and methods of thinking and working in each field.

Research and Training: The regulations for Master of Arts and Master of Science should be uniform in all universities of India. The admission procedure as well as the process for enrolling in Ph.D. degree should be arranged on an all India basis. D.Litt. and D.Sc. Degrees should be awarded on published work of outstanding quality. A large number of Scholarship should be provided for the research work to the university by the Ministry of Education. Fundamental research should be the primary step for a u university.

Professional Education: The University Education Commission has made some recommendations regarding professional education and has divided it into the five aspects of education as Agriculture education, Commercial Education, Engineering and Technology, Legal Education and Medical Education.

Regarding Agriculture education, the Commission emphasized that agriculture education should be recognized as an important national issue and the study of the subject of agriculture should be introduced in all stages of education i.e. primary, secondary and higher level. The existing agriculture colleges and institutions should be improved and research centres should be established. On the aspect of the Commercial Education, the Commission recommended that commercial education should be made more practical and the graduates should be encouraged to specialize in a particular branch. On the subject of Education, the faculty of training colleges should be recruited for giving training to the people who have first-hand experiences of school teaching. In assessing students' performance, more stress should be given to practice only. Regarding Engineering and Technology, the Radhakrishan Commission recommended the inclusion of the general education and basic physical engineering science in the engineering courses. Besides these, the Commission also suggested that the number of engineering schools and colleges should be increased, the existing engineering colleges' should be upgraded for post graduate training and research in selected subjects and they should be closely associated with the universities. In the context of Legal Education, the commission suggested that the law colleges should be thoroughly re-organized. Students pursuing degree courses in law should not be permitted to carry on other degree courses simultaneously. Regarding Medical Education, the commission recommended that the maximum number of admission should be 100 and that all the departments of the study which require hospital facilities should be located in a single campus. There should be 10 beds for each student. Post-graduate training should be offered in certain well staffed colleges.

Religious Education: The University Education Commission 1948 who recommended religious education in the colleges that-

· “all educational institution start work with a few minutes for silent meditation.

· That in the first year of the degree course the lives of great religious leaders like Gautama the Buddha, Confucius Zaroaster, Socrates, Jesus, Sankara, Ramanuja, Madhava, Mohammad, Kabir, Naik, Gandhi be taught.

· That in the second year some selections of a universalistic character from the scriptures of the world be studied.

· That in the third year, the central problems of the philosophy of religion be considered.”

Medium of Instruction: According to the recommendation of the University Education Commission, higher education should be imparted through the regional lanquage with the option to use the federal lanquage as the medium of instruction either for some subjects or for all subjects. All provincial governments should take step to introduce the teaching of the federal lanquage in all classes of Higher Secondary Schools, in Degree Colleges and in the Universities. English Should be studied in the Higher Schools and in the Universities for keeping the students in touch with the living stream of ever-growing knowledge.

Examination or Evaluation System: The University Education Commission criticized the present system of examination and stress was given to introducing the objective type questions in the examination. Following are the basic ideas and suggestions of the University Education Commission in 1948-49 in this regard.

· The commission suggested the techniques in devising and constructing objective test for the class examination in colleges and universities.

· The Government should not insist on university degrees for the administrative services.

· According to the University Education Commission, Credit should be given for the class work and one third of the mark allotted to each subject should be reserved for work done during the course of instruction.

· The standard of success at the various examinations should be uniform in all universities.

· The Commission divided the rank after passing the examination as getting 70% or more marks should be given the rank of first class, 55% to 69% for the rank of second class and at least 40% for a the rank of third class.

· The system of grace marks should be abolished.

· Viva-voce examination should be employed only for professional and post graduate degrees.

· The essay type of questions should continue with the objective type questions but the type of question, method of examination should be thoroughly changed with a view to making it more valid and reliable.

Students' Activities and Welfare: Regarding the students' activities and their part in the wellbeing of the nation, the Commission suggested the following recommendations:

· The students should undergo thorough physical examination at the time of admission and at least once a year thereafter.

· All universities must have hospital and health service.

· Sanitary inspection of the campus buildings, hostels, dining rooms, kitchens and off-campus residences must be undertaken in a university.

· Competent staff should be provided for compulsory physical training and a regular time should be assigned for the purpose.

· Social service should be encouraged and it should remain on a completely voluntary basis.

· All students should receive N.C.C. training.

· Students union should be free-form he political motives and activities.

· An office of the Dean of Students should be set up in colleges and universities.

Women Education: Regarding the women education, the Commission suggested for providing the same facilities to the women colleges and universities as provided to men's colleges and universities. The curriculum should also be prepared for them, considering them as both women and citizens.

Administration and Finance of a University: The university Education Commission considered the regulations and control capacity of a university in the followings ways:

· The university education should be placed on the concurrent list.

· Regarding the finance, co-ordination of facilities in special subjects, adoption of national policies, ensuring minimum standards of efficient administration and providing liaison between universities and national research laboratories and scientific surveys etc., the Central Government must have the responsibility towards the universities.

· For the allocation of grants to the universities a central Grants Commission should be established.

· There should be no university of the purely affiliating type.

· The governing bodies of the colleges should be properly constituted.

· The aim of an affiliated college should be to develop into a unitary university and later into a federative one.

· The organizational set-up of a university should be as follows:

· Regarding finance, a University Grant Commission should be set up fpr allocating grants to the universities. The State should also take the responsibility for the financing of higher education.

In India, the University Grant Commission was set up in 1956.

Rural Universities and Colleges: Regarding Rural Universities and Colleges, the Commission said: “the general advancement of rural India will call for an ever increasing range and quality of skill and training. To supply these and to meet the requirement of an educated citizenship, a system of rural colleges and universities necessary”. (Report of Radha Krishnan Commission)

· A rural university should include a ring of small, resident under graduate colleges with specialized and university facilities in the centre.

· The number of students for the undergraduate resident colleges should be not more than three hundred, and the overall maximum enrolment for colleges and university combined should be about twenty-five hundred.

· Each college of about three hundred students should have separate teaching staff and facilities.

· In the rural colleges, the general studies should be combined with the practical course, so that the students become cultured and educated men and women equipped with skill-oriented.

· Regarding the curriculum of the rural university, the Commission said: “a common core of liberal education may be assumed for the rural university as for any other, though the methods used in teaching and learning may be different. The Common core would include substantial introduction to the fields of mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, geology, Astronomy, Biology, Physical Education, Psychology, the Social Sciences, Philosophy and Languages and Literature.” So the Commission recommended the Common Core consisting of Mathematics, basic sciences, social sciences and language and literature.

EXERCISE 1. Explain some of the specific recommendations regarding the University System of Education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

7. In which Year the University Grant Commission was formed? 8. What should be the organizational set-up of a University?

LET US SUM UP

After having a discussion on the system and background of the university Education Commission, the followings are the basic ideas that we have learnt from this unit.

The University Education Commission was appointed on November, 1948 under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. The Commission studied the problems of the University education in India and submitted its report in August, 1949.

The Commission gave important recommendations with regard to the aims and objectives of higher education. The main aim was to discover new knowledge for the welfare of the countrymen and to utilise that knowledge for vocational, scientific and industrial development. The major recommendations, regarding Aims and Objectives of higher education were -

· To teach that life has a meaning.

· To awaken the innate ability to live a meaningful life by developing wisdom.

· To acquaint with the social philosophy thatshould govern all our institutions - educational as well as economic and political.

· To train for democracy.

· To train for self - development.

· To develop certain values like fearlessness of mind, strength of conscience and integrity of purpose.

· To acquaint with cultural heritage for its registration.

· To enable to know that education is a life - long process.

· To develop understanding of the present as well as of the past.

· To impart vocational and professional training.

Faculty in universities, Teaching Standards, Course of studies, Research and Training, Medium of Instruction, Examination, Student's Duties and Activities, Women Education, Administration and Finance, Rural Universities are some of the components of a university system, where the University Education Commission had made some specific recommendations.

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1.

November, 1948.

2.

Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan.

3.

10 members.

4.

The Commission was appointed to suggest measures to improve and recognize the University Education system in India.

5.

The four major terms of Reference of the University Commission were:

· The aims and objectives of University education and research in India.

· The finance of Universities.

· The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching and examination in the universities and colleges under their control.

· The medium of instruction in the universities.

6.

The four recommendations of the University Education Commission of 1948 on the Aims and Objectives of Higher Education were:

· The universities have to provide leadership in politics, administration, education, industry and commerce.

· The aim of university education should be to produce intellectual adventures.

· One of the main functions of the universities is to bring about the spiritual development of the students.

· Education should discover the innate qualities of a person and develop them through training.

7.

1956.

8.

The organizational set-up of a university should be as follows:

INTRODUCTION TO SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1952-53

UNIT STRUCTURE

1.

Learning Objectives

2.

Introduction

3.

Background and Appointment of the Secondary Education Commission

1.

Terms of References

2.

Method of Enquiry

4.

Report of the Commission

1.

Defects of the Existing System

2.

Aims of Secondary Education

3.

Reorganization of Secondary Education

5.

Curriculum in Secondary Schools

1.

Defects of the Existing Curriculum

2.

The Basic Principles of Curriculum Construction

3.

Curriculum of different Stages of Secondary Schools.

6.

Let Us Sum Up

7.

Further Readings

8.

Answers to Check Your Progress

9.

Possible Questions

10.

References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After going through this unit, you will be able to:

Describe the background that led to the appointment of the Secondary Education Commission 1952-53.

Identify the terms of reference of the Commission.

Explain the defects of the existing - system of secondary education.

Mention the recommendations on the aims of Secondary Education.

Discuss the recommendations on the principles of curriculum construction of secondary Education.

INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit we have discussed the University Education Commission which tried to give a new direction to university education in India. We will discuss the Secondary Education in this unit. Secondary education is the stage of education that includes all the classes after the primary school and before university education is started. This stage is considered to be the backbone of the country's entire educational programme. This however, is also the stage which marks the completion of education for the large majority of pupils. Secondary education is also the basis of higher education which gives the desired direction to the nation's power. An inefficient system of secondary education therefore is bound to affect adversely the quality of education at all later stages. This unit deals with the Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53, covering its various aspects from the background of its appointment to its recommendations which had a far reaching effect on India's Secondary Education.

BACKGROUND AND APPOINTMENT OF THE SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION

Let us discuss the background of appointing the Secondary Education Commission. After achieving the independence in 1947, both the public and the Government began to take keen interest in the development of secondary education. Although the number of secondary schools and its enrolment began to significantly increase even before India's attaining independence, the quality of education imparted was unable to meet the changing socio-economic needs of the country. As such, the need for reform was strongly felt. The university Education Commission also remarked that our secondary education remained the weakest link in our educational machinery and it needed urgent reforms. Meanwhile with the attainment of independence, the political situation of the country also underwent a complete transformation. Education also needed a fresh look, calling for a new outlook which was appropriately voiced by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Education Minister in his presidential address to the Central Advisory Board of Education in 1948. The Central Advisory Board of Education at its 14th meeting held in January 1948 recommended the appointment of a commission to examine the prevailing system of Secondary Education in the country and to suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement. There were other considerations also before the Government of India for setting up a commission for Secondary Education. In view of these considerations, the Government of India set up, the Secondary Education Commission by Resolution dated 23rd September, 1952, under the Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, the Vice-Chancellor of the Madras University. Therefore this commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Commission was inaugurated on 6th October, 1952. It submitted its Report on June 1953.

Terms of Reference

The terms of reference of this Commission are as follows: a) To enquire into and report on the present position of Secondary Education in India in all its aspects. b) To suggest measures for its re-organisation and improvement with particular reference to - i) The aims, organisation and content of secondary education. ii) Its relationship to primary, basic and higher education. iii) The inter-relation of secondary schools of different types. iv) Other allied problems. So that a sound and reasonable uniform system of secondary education suited to our needs and resources may be provided for the whole country.

Method of Enquiry

The Commission prepared a questionnaire dealing with the various aspects of secondary education. This was sent out to various educational experts, teachers and educational institutions of India. On the basis of the replies received a good deal of information was collected. The members of the Commission took an extensive tour of the various parts of India and acquired first-hand knowledge of the various educational problems and presented its report running on August 29, 1953.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSION

Now we shall discuss about the report of the Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53. As the report is a very lengthy one containing 311 pages, it is not possible for us to discuss all aspects in detail. We will confine our discussion to the defects of the prevailing system of secondary education in India and the recommendations given by the Commission regarding its aims, new organizational pattern and the curriculum. Let us discuss all these points one by one.

Defects of the Existing System

The Commission pointed out the following defects of the existing system -

· First, the education given in our schools is isolated from life. The curriculum as formulated and as presented through the traditional methods of teachings does not give the students insight into the everyday world in which they are living.

· Secondly, it is narrow and one sided and it fails to train the whole personality of the student.

· Thirdly, too much importance has been given to English. Students who did not posses special linguistic ability were, therefore, greatly handicapped in their studies.

· Fourthly, the method of teaching generally practised failed to develop in the students their independence of thought and initiative in action.

· Fifthly, the increase in size of the classes has considerably reduced personal contact between the teachers and the pupils. Thus the training of character andinculcation of proper discipline have been seriously undermined.

· Finally, the dead weight of the examination has tended to curb the teachers initiative, to stereotype the curriculum, to promote mechanical and lifeless methods of teaching, to discourage all spirit of experimentation and to place the stress on the wrong, or unimportant things on education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word - i) Secondary Education Commission was appointed on_______. ii) ______ was the Chairman of the Commission. iii) Secondary Education Commission is also known as _______. 2. State any two defects of the existing secondary education.

Its Recommendations on the Aims of Secondary Education

The Commission has made the following recommendations in regard to its aims of Secondary Education -

Development of democratic citizenship Since India has decided to make itself a democratic republic, the citizens have to be trained to uphold and practice the values of the democratic social order. This can be possible only when the qualities of discipline, tolerance, patriotism, co-operation, equal opportunities for thought, speech and writing, the essence of the world citizenship are inculcated and developed in the students. Secondary education, according to the Mudaliar Commission, should develop all these qualities in the students. Citizens with these qualities can grow into ideal - citizens capable of making Indian democracy a success. In short, the aim of secondary education should be to develop ideal democratic citizens in the country.

Improvement of Vocational efficiency : One of the urgent needs of the country is to increase the productive efficiency of its people and to increase the national income. For this, education must aim at increasing the productivity or vocational efficiency of the young students. To achieve this goal, the Secondary Education Commission recommended for fostering the dignity of manual labour and for the promotion of technical skills for the advancement of industry and technology through secondary education. Therefore, secondary education is to be freed from purely theoretical education system and emphasis is to be placed on agricultural, technical, commercial and other practical courses.

Education for leadership : Secondary education is a terminal point for majority of the students. Therefore, at the end of the school education, each pupil must be able to enter into various professions independently. “A special function of the secondary school, in the context, is to train persons who will be able to assume the responsibility of leadership - in social, political, industrial or cultural fields - in their own small groups of community or locality.”

Development of personality : The secondary education must aim at the development of the personality of the students. It should be so organised that the creative energy in the students should find proper expression. They should also be trained to appreciate their cultural heritage and acquire constructive and valuable interest. They should also be trained to preserve and conserve their cultural heritage. An all-round development of the personality of the student is an essential aim of secondary education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

3. Which of the following are the recommendations on the Aims of Secondary Education? Put a (3) for the right answer. i) Education and productivity ii) Education and national integration iii) Development of democratic citizenship iv) Development of personality v) Education and Modernisation vi) Improvement of Vocational Efficiency vii) Development of social, moral and spiritual values viii) Education for leadership

Re-organisation of Secondary Education

Regarding the organizational pattern of secondary education, the Secondary Education Commission recommended that secondary education should be a complete stage by itself. This stage of education is most important for the students in their preparation for life. To raise the standard of school education the Commission proposed the following organizational pattern:

· The duration of secondary education should be 7 years. It should cover the age of group of11-17.

· Under the new organizational structure secondary education should commence after 4 or 5 years of primary or junior basic education.

· The middle or senior basic or lower secondary stage should cover a period of 3 years.

· The higher secondary stage should cover 3 years.

· The commission also suggested abolition of the present intermediate classes. The 12th class should be attached to the university and the 11th class should be added to the high school. Thus it pleaded for one year pre-university and 3 year degree courses.

· The commission recommended that technical schools should be started in large number and central technical institutes should be established in large cities.

· Multi-purpose schools should be established, which would provide terminal courses in technology, commerce, agriculture, fine arts and home sciences. The object of theses institutions was to direct students into different walks of life at the end of the secondary course and this will reduce the pressure upon university entrance.

CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

The Secondary Education Commission has discussed at length the secondary education curriculum. First it pointed out the defects of the existing curriculum, discussed in detail the principle of curriculum construction and finally the curriculum of different stages of secondary schools.

Defects of the Existing Curriculum

The Commission has pointed out the following defects in the existing curriculum:

· The present curriculum is narrow.

· It is bookish and theoretical.

· It is overcrowded and does not provide rich and significant contents.

· There is no adequate provision for practical and other kinds of activities that should find place in any curriculum at this stage of education. Hence, the curriculum is not able to bring about the education of the whole personality of the child.

· It does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents.

· Technical and vocational subjects are very much needed for India today, but the curriculum does not find room for these subjects.

· Curriculum is too much dominated by the examination.

The Basic Principles of Curriculum Construction

The Secondary Education Commission has recommended some principles to be followed in the construction of curriculum.

· Principles of totality of experience - According to the Secondary Education Commission, “The curriculum does not include only the academic subjects traditionally taught in the school but it includes the totality of experiences that a pupil receives through manifold activities that go in the school, in the classroom, library, laboratory, workshop, playground and in numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.” All types of experiences in the school or planned by the school should be included in the curriculum.

· Principles of variety and elasticity - The Curriculum should be elastic and include varieties of subjects and activities to meet the needs of the various types of pupils. The curriculum should be adaptable to meet the needs and interests of the students.

· Principles relating to community -The curriculum should be related to the community. There should be community - oriented programmes in the curriculum so that a child can feel that he is an integral part of the local community. The curriculum should bring the child and the community closer.

· Principle of training for leisure -The Curriculum should be designed to train the students not only for work but also for leisure. For this purpose there should be a number of activities - social, aesthetic, sporting etc. which should be included in the curriculum. These activities will train the students to use their leisure time properly.

· Principle of integration and correlation -The curriculum should not be merely a bundle of subjects and activities. The activities and subjects should be integrated and well - correlated. The curriculum should provide a 'broad field' units having direct bearing on life.

Curriculum of Different Stages of Secondary CShools

1) Curriculum for Middle Schools 2) Curriculum for High and Higher Secondary Schools. The Commission has laid down the following different curriculum for these two stages in the secondary education. 1) Curriculum for the Middle Schools - The Commission has recommended the inclusion of the following subjects. a) English. b) Social Studies. c) General Science. d) Mathematics. e) Art and Music. f) Craft. g) Physical Education. 2) The Curriculum for High and Higher Secondary Schools- For this stage of education, the commission has suggested that there should be a diversified course. (a) Compulsory subjects or main subjects; and (b) Optional subjects.

A)

Compulsory Subjects : The Compulsory subjects shall include the following : 1. Mother tongue or regional language or composite course of the mother tongue and a classical language. 2. One other language to be chosen from among the following: i) Hindi for those whose mother tongue is not Hindi. ii) Elementary English (for those who have not studied English in the middle stage). iii) Advanced English (for those who have studied English at the earlier stage). iv) A Modern Indian Language (other than Hindi). v) A modern foreign language (other than English). vi) A classical language. 3. Social studies - General course (for the first two years only). 4. General science, Including Mathematics - General course (for the first two years only). 5. One Craft to be chosen out of the list given below : i) Spinning and weaving ii) Wood Work iii) Metal Work iv) Gardening v) Tailoring vi) Typography vii) Workshop Practice viii) Sewing, Needle Work and Embroidery ix) Modeling

B)

Optional Subjects : Three subjects from one of the following groups - Group - 1 (Humanities) : (a) A classical language or a third language from A (2) not already taken; (b) History; (c) Geography; (d) Elements of Economics and Civics; (e) Elements of Psychology and Logic; (f) Mathematics; (g) Music; (h) Domestic Science. Group -2 (Sciences) : (a) Physics; (b) Chemistry; (c) Biology; (d) Geography; (e) Mathematics; (f) Elements of Physiology and Hygiene; (not to be taken with Biology). Group -3 (Technical) : (a) Applied Mathematics and Geometrical Engineering; (b) Applied Science; (c) Elements of Mechanical Engineering; (d) Elements of Electrical Engineering. Group - 4 (Commercial) : (a) Commercial Practice; (b) Book-Keeping; (c) Commercial Geography or Elements of Economics and Civics; (d) Shorthand and Typewriting. Group - 5 (Agriculture) : (a) General Agriculture; (b) Animal Husbandry; (c) Horticulture and Gardening; (d) Agricultural Chemistry and Botany Group - 6 (Fine Arts) : (a) History of Art; (b) Drawing and Designing; (c) Painting; (d) Modelling; (e) Music; (f) Dancing. Group - 7 (Home Science) : (a) Home Economics; (b) Nutrition and Cookery; (c) Mother Craft and Child Care; (d) Household Management and Home Nursing.

Besides the above, a student may take as his option one additional subject from any of the above groups irrespective of whether or not he has chosen his other options from that particular group.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

4. Mention any four defects of the existing curriculum. ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 5. What are the recommendations of secondary Education Commission on the principles of curriculum construction? ............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

LET US SUM UP

The Secondary Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. L.S. Mudaliar on September 23, 1952. So, it is popularly known as Mudaliar Commission. The commission has pointed out some defects of the existing system of secondary education.

The commission gave important recommendations with regard to the aims of secondary education and the principles of curriculum construction.

The main aim of secondary education was to produce perfect citizens who may provide leadership and who are self-reliant, obedient and disciplined.

The commission has pointed out some defects in the existing curriculum. So, it has recommended the principles of curriculum construction. The principles are - totality of experience, variety and elasticity, relation to community life, training for leisure and correlation of the subjects.

The commission has suggested a scheme of curriculum for middle schools and high and higher secondary schools.

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1

i) September 23, 1952 (ii) Dr. lakshman Swami Mudaliar (iii) Mudaliar Commission

2

i) Isolated from life (ii) Narrow and one sided.

3

iii), (iv), (vi), (viii)

4.

The defects of the existing curriculum are: i) Narrow ii) Bookish and Theoretical iii) Dominated by examination iv) Overcrowding of subjects.

5.

The recommendatuions of Secondary Education commission on the principles of curriculum construction are: i) Principles of totality of experience ii) Principles of variety and elasticity. iii) Principles of relating to community. iv) Principles of training for leisure. v) Principles of integration and correlation.

Dont b Fear wn Ronin z here...
1 comment
Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

n 1 more National policy of Education 1986, ive hard papr of it, search NPE 1986 may u'l get it.. @Next_Osama

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Implementation of RTE 2009

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Ronin8878361515
@Ronin8878361515  ·  0 karma

Gov. policies r alwys poor weather it is in d field of education r any othr else. They alwys hv loop holes to make profit to som top gov officials n corruptd peoples. Thes things r'nt new to india..

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priyanka22s
@priyanka22s  ·  0 karma

truly said ronin..

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