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The system of patent-chanting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all-the semi conouctor industry-suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Zledonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for Innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980s. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semiconductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off Infringement suits or as a means to block competitors' products


The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits

(A) was rarely successful during the 1980s

(B) became increasingly infrequent in the 1980s

(C)does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system

(D) is a consequence of the decline in patent quality

(E) is discussed increasingly in the semiconductor industry's technical literature

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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The system of patent-chanting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all-the semi conouctor industry-suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Zledonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for Innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980s. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semiconductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off Infringement suits or as a means to block competitors' products

 The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semi conductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

(B) a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process

(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992

(D) reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992

(E) certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a substance as a pheromone. While most agree on a basic definition of pheromones as chemicals released by one individual of a species which, when detected by another individual of the same species, elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response, some researchers also specify that the response to pheromones must be unconscious. In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants-chemicals that are consciously detected as odors-can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant. Evidence that pheromone responses may not involve conscious odor perception comes from the finding that in many species, pheromones are processed by the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory) system, which uses a special structure in the nose, the vomeronasal organ (VNO), to receive chemical signals. The neural connections between the VNO and the brain are separate from those of the main olfactory system, whose processing of odorants triggers sensations of smell. But while the VNO does process many animal pheromone signals, not all animal pheromones work through the VNO. Conversely, not all chemical signals transmitted via the VNO qualify as pheromones. For example, garter snakes detect a chemical signal from earthworms-one of their favorite foods-via the VNO, and they use this signal to track their prey.


According to the passage, the fact that pheromones are processed by the VNO in many animal species has been taken as evidence of which of the following?

(A)The accessory and main olfactory systems are not separate systems.

(B) Odorants and pheromones are not distinct types of chemicals.

(C) Odorants and pheromones both elicit a specific behavioral response.

(D) Pheromones do not trigger conscious sensations of smell.

(E) Pheromones aid animals in tracking prey

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a substance as a pheromone. While most agree on a basic definition of pheromones as chemicals released by one individual of a species which, when detected by another individual of the same species, elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response, some researchers also specify that the response to pheromones must be unconscious. In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants—chemicals that are consciously detected as odors—can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant. Evidence that pheromone responses may not involve conscious odor perception comes from the finding that in many species, pheromones are processed by the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory) system, which uses a special structure in the nose, the vomeronasal organ (VNO), to receive chemical signals. The neural connections between the VNO and the brain are separate from those of the main olfactory system, whose processing of odorants triggers sensations of smell. But while the VNO does process many animal pheromone signals, not all animal pheromones work through the VNO. Conversely, not all chemical signals transmitted via the VNO qualify as pheromones. For example, garter snakes detect a chemical signal from earthworms—one of their favorite foods—via the VNO, and they use this signal to track their prey.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory system process chemicals

(B) summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception

(C) present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone

(D) propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research

(E) argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant


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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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Planter-legislators of the post-Civil War southern United States enacted crop lien laws stipulating that those who advanced cash or supplies necessary to plant a crop would receive, as security, a claim, or lien, on the crop produced. In doing so, planters, most of whom were former slaveholders, sought access to credit from merchants and control over nominally free laborers--former slaves freed by the victory of the northern Union over the southern Confederacy in the United States Civil War. They hoped to reassure merchants that despite the emancipation of the slaves, planters would produce crops and pay debts. Planters planned to use their supply credit to control their workers, former slaves who were without money to rent land or buy supplies. Planters imagined continuation of the pre-Civil War economic hierarchy: merchants supplying landlords, landlords supplying laborers, and laborers producing crops from which their scant wages and planters' profits would come, allowing planters to repay advances. Lien laws frequently had unintended consequences, however, thwarting the planter fantasy of mastery without slavery. The newly freed workers, seeking to become self-employed tenant farmers rather than wage laborers, made direct arrangements with merchants for supplies. Lien laws, the centerpiece of a system designed to create a dependent labor force, became the means for workers, with alternative means of supply advances, to escape that dependence.


1. Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the passage?


A. Planters in the post-Civil War southern United States sought to reinstate the institution of slavery.


B. Through their decisions regarding supply credit, merchants controlled post-Civil War agriculture.


C. Lien laws helped to defeat the purpose for which they were originally created.


D. Although slavery had ended, the economic hierarchy changed little in the post-Civil War southern United States.


E. Newly freed workers enacted lien laws to hasten the downfall of the plantation economy.

2. According to the passage, each of the following was a reason planters supported crop lien laws EXCEPT:


A. Planters believed that lien laws would allow them to expand their landholdings.


B. Planters expected that lien laws would give them control over former slaves.


C. Planters anticipated that lien laws would help them retain access to merchant credit.


D. Planters intended to use lien laws to create a dependent labor force.


E. Planters saw lien laws as a way to maintain their traditional economic status.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about merchants in the post-Civil War southern United States?


A. They sought to preserve pre-Civil War social conditions.


B. Their numbers in the legislatures had been diminished.


C. Their businesses had suffered from a loss of collateral.


D. They were willing to make business arrangements with former slaves.


E. Their profits had declined because planters defaulted on debts for supply advances.

undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 

Puys.. I find the Philosophical RCs very tough.... I take much time in reading them and still commit mistake in the followup questions.... how to overcome this weakness??

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  • Even I find them tough. I combat this by (a) reading them.... 11 Apr.
  • @scrabbler thanks for the tips....:). 11 Apr.
I can crack CAT and I will crack CAT 
scrabbler
Off PG for a while @scrabbler 28,068

Even I find them tough. I combat this by (a) reading them more slowly (b) focusing harder and (c) most importantly, not assuming that I already know any of the stuff (a safe assumption for me in science-y or literary passages) but trying to put myself in the shoes of the writer. That way I can generally get 3-4 out of 5 right, in most cases.Not all though.

I still vaguely remember this passage from CAT 11 where I was like The questions didn't seem too bad, but I still found two of them very very tough as the passage itself went clean overhead. Sometimes it happens. Just remember that most other people in the slot will also probably find it tough...and morale boost yourself into not messing the other questions because of one tough passage/set

Nipun008
NIPUN SARIN @Nipun008 421

@scrabbler thanks for the tips....:)

Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employment that occurred in the United States during the 1980s to increased participation in the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrangements. However, statistical analyses reveal that demographic changes in the workforce did not correlate with variations in the total number of temporary workers. Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting employers account for the rise in temporary employment. One factor is product demand: temporary employment is favored by employers who are adapting to fluctuating demand for products while at the same time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which allows employers more control over the terms of employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions. Government policymakers should consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary employees, promoting pay equity between temporary and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in organizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who explicitly indicate that preference.


In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line 23) most closely corresponds to which of the following phrases?



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In the seventeenth-century Florentine textile industry, women were employed primarily in low- paying, low-skill jobs. To explain this segregation of labor by gender, economists have relied on the useful theory of human capital. According to this theory, investment in human capital—the acquisition of difficult job-related skills—generally benefits individuals by making them eligible to engage in well-paid occupations. Women’s role as child bearers, however, results in interruptions in their participation in the job market (as compared with men’s) and thus reduces their opportunities to acquire training for highly skilled work. In addition, the human capital theory explains why there was a high concentration of women workers in certain low-skill jobs, such as weaving, but not in others, such as combing or carding, by positing that because of their primary responsibility in child rearing women took occupations that could be carried out in the home. There were, however, differences in pay scale that cannot be explained by the human capital theory. For example, male construction workers were paid significantly higher wages than female taffeta weavers. The wage difference between these two low-skill occupations stems from the segregation of labor by gender: because a limited number of occupations were open to women, there was a large supply of workers in their fields, and this “overcrowding” resulted in women receiving lower wages and men receiving higher wages

The author of the passage would be most likely to describe the explanation provided by the human capital theory for the high concentration of women in certain occupations in the seventeenth-century Florentine textile industry as


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In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main product of the United States economy. But what is meant by “services”? Some economists define a service as something that is produced and consumed simultaneously, for example, a haircut. The broader, classical definition is that a service is an intangible something that cannot be touched or stored. Yet electric utilities can store energy, and computer programmers save information electronically. Thus, the classical definition is hard to sustain.

The United States government’s definition is more practical: services are the residual category that includes everything that is not agriculture or industry. Under this definition, services includes activities as diverse as engineering and driving a bus. However, besides lacking a strong conceptual framework, this definition fails to recognize the distinction between service industries and service occupations. It categorizes workers based on their company’s final product rather than on the actual work the employees perform. Thus, the many service workers employed by manufacturers— bookkeepers or janitors, for example—would fall under the industrial rather than the services category. Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States Economy


The author refers to “service workers employed by manufacturers” (line 23) primarily in order to point out

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[Same Passage]

According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following

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