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2. The author holds that one should not necessarily defer to the traditions and customs of other people. The author supports his position by arguing that:
I. traditions and customs are usually the result of misinterpreted experiences.
II. customs are based on experiences in the past, which are different from modern experiences.
III. customs can stifle one's individual development.
A. II only
B. III only
C. I and III only
D. II and III only
1. Based on information in the passage, with which of the following statements about opinions would the author most likely NOT disagree?
A. Different opinions exist because people are imperfect.
B. An opinion can be relatively harmless in one context and dangerous in another.
C. Opinions directed specifically against fellow human beings should be punished.
D. All expressions of opinion should really be considered actions.
E. An opinion always has an additional unintended effect
The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world's human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens. Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream. Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal's intestines are the parasite's sole breeding ground. Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats' intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats' droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host. Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements is true of dendritic cells in the human body?
2. According to the passage, all of the following are true of Toxoplasma gondii EXCEPT
3. The second paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage?
4. Which of the following is the most likely outcome for Toxoplasma cells that invade the human body?
5. The author mentions “pigs and chickens” in the final paragraph in order to
Concord staked its claim to be the birthplace of Independence during the celebration of "America's jubilee" on April 19, 1825, the fiftieth anniversary of Concord Fight. Concord in 1825 was an expansive town of nineteen hundred inhabitants, thriving with crafts and trade in the village and surrounded by farms prospering on demand from rising urban centers in the long boom that accompanied the opening phase of the Industrial Revolution in the Northeast. It also occupied a prominent place on the political landscape; as a shire town, where the county courts convened, it had risen into a leading center of Middlesex County, and its politicians were major players on that stage. Economic and political ambitions, as well as pride in the past, drove the insistence that Concord was the "first site of forcible resistance to British aggression."
A decade later, by the mid-1830s, with over two thousand inhabitants, Concord was probably at its political and economic pinnacle. The central village hosted some nine stores, forty shops, four hotels and taverns, four doctors and four lawyers, a variety of county associations, a printing office and a post office. Manufacturing was humming, too, with a growing mill village in the west part of town, along the quick-running Assabet River, and rising production of carriages and chaises, boots and shoes, bricks, guns, bellows, and pencils.
But a good many people were left out of the prosperity. In what was still a farming town, 64 percent of adult males were landless, while the top tenth of taxpayers, some fifty men, controlled nearly half the wealth. Those who failed to obtain a stake in society, native and newcomer alike, quickly moved on. The ties that once joined neighbors together were fraying. On the farms, the old work customs - the huskings, roof-raisings, and apple bees - by which people cooperated to complete essential chores gave way to modern capitalist arrangements. When men needed help, they hired it, and paid the going rate, which no longer included the traditional ration of grog. With a new zeal for temperance, employers abandoned the custom of drinking with workers in what had been a ritual display of camaraderie. There was no point in pretending to common bonds.
With the loosening of familiar obligations came unprecedented opportunities for personal autonomy and voluntary choice. Massachusetts inaugurated a new era of religious pluralism in 1834, ending two centuries of mandatory support for local churches. Even in Concord, a slim majority approved the change, and as soon as it became law, townspeople deserted the two existing churches - the Unitarian flock of the Reverend Ripley and an orthodox Calvinist congregation started in 1826 - in droves. The Sabbath no longer brought all ranks and orders together in obligatory devotion to the Word of God. Instead, townspeople gathered in an expanding array of voluntary associations - libraries, lyceums, charitable and missionary groups, Masonic lodges, antislavery and temperance societies, among others - to promote diverse projects for the common good. The privileged classes, particularly the village elite, were remarkably active in these campaigns. But even as they pulled back from customary roles and withdrew into private associations, they continued to exercise public power.1. The passage suggests which of the following about members of the village elite in post-1834 Concord?
2. The primary purpose of this passage is to
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