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GMAT Reading Comprehension Discussions

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Guys try these, Please post your reasoning too

Passage 1
In choosing a method for determining climatic conditions that existed in the past,.......................
4.Which of the following would be the most likely topic for a paragraph that logically continues the passage?
(A) The kinds of plants normally found in arid regions
(B) The effect of variation in lake levels on pollen distribution
(C) The material best suited to preserving signals of climatic changes
(D) Other criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when choosing a method to determine past climatic conditions
(E) A third method for investigating past climatic conditions


Passage 2
Since the late 1970's, in the face of a severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, .........
6.In the passage, the author includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) personal observation
(B) a business principle
(C) a definition of productivity
(D) an example of a successful company
(E) an illustration of a process technology



Passage 3
The settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since 1893 ...............
4.According to the passage, Turner makes which of the following connections in his Frontier Thesis?
I.A connection between American individualism and economic equality
II.A connection between geographical expansion and social change
III.A connection between social change and financial prosperity
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II and III


OA are
E
E
D

but I had some doubts.

In second question the passage mentions "Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; "

This means that manufacturing strategy is composed of manufacturing structure and process technology...and then author gives and example of manufacturing strategy, which is an example of process tech as well..therefore answer can't be point E. Also author doesn't explicitly mention business principle anywhere although 2nd para feels like a business principle


third question is turner makes which of the following connections,but the second para begin with "Turner claims....." i.e Author says that Turner had claimed so and so...but Author never mentions that turner achieved this. So I think "I" point can't be correct.


Any thoughts where I am going wrong ??
Guys try these, Please post your reasoning too

Passage 1
In choosing a method for determining climatic conditions that existed in the past, paleoclimatologists invoke four principal criteria.
One very old method used in the investigation of past climatic conditions involves the measurement of water levels in ancient lakes.
Another problematic method is to reconstruct former climates on the basis of pollen profiles.

4. Which of the following would be the most likely topic for a paragraph that logically continues the passage?
(A) The kinds of plants normally found in arid regions
(B) The effect of variation in lake levels on pollen distribution
(C) The material best suited to preserving signals of climatic changes
(D) Other criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when choosing a method to determine past climatic conditions
(E) A third method for investigating past climatic conditions

Answer should be E. First para talks about criterias used for the method. Second and third para demonstrates the methods. On a logical continuation it should be third method for investigating past climatic conditions.

Passage 2
Since the late 1970s, in the face of a severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in the United States have been trying to improve productivityand therefore enhance their international competitivenessthrough cost-cutting programs. (Cost-cutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from 1978 through 1982, productivitythe value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor inputdid not improve; and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25 percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive edge.

With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25 companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a 40, 40, 20 rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number, size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major changes in equipment and process technology. The final 20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should not be tried. The well-known tools of this approachincluding simplifying jobs and retraining employees to work smarter, not harderdo produce results. But the tools quickly reach the limits of what they can contribute.

Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As Abernathys study of automobile manufacturers has shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its ability to develop new products. And managers under pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on which they are measured. Production managers have always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and maximizing output. This dimension of performance has until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers.

Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years the company regained its competitive advantage. Together with such strategies, successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.

6. In the passage, the author includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) personal observation
(B) a business principle
(C) a definition of productivity
(D) an example of a successful company
(E) an illustration of a process technology
This is a serious toughy and confusing one. A B and C are obviously there. Refer to the bold part in third para. It implies that every company that has implemented manufacturing strategy can be considered successful company though It is not directly stated. So the answer is E. There is no illustration of process technology.


Passage 3
The settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that explained American development in terms of westward expansion. From the perspective of womens history, Turners exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a major drawback: his defenders and critics alike have reconstructed mens, not womens, lives on the frontier. However, precisely because of this masculine orientation, revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on womens experience introduces new themes into womens historywoman as lawmaker and entrepreneurand, consequently, new interpretations of womens relationship to capital, labor, and statute.

Turner claimed that the frontier produced the individualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and that this individualism in turn promoted democratic institutions and economic equality. He argued for the frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all, fell under Turners spell. In their works these authors tended to glorify womens contributions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradition, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable lot, free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters. This interpretation implied that the West provided a congenial environment where women could aspire to their own goals, free from constrictive stereotypes and sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology, the frontier had furnished a gate of escape from the bondage of the past.

By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reactionist writers took the view that frontier women were lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensified the worst aspects of gender relations. The renaissance of the feminist movement during the 1970s led to the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar to the live of women in the East. In one now-standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence of the cult of true womanhood and the illusionary quality of change on the westward journey. Recently the Stasist position has been revised but not entirely discounted by new research.


4. According to the passage, Turner makes which of the following connections in his Frontier Thesis?
I. A connection between American individualism and economic equality
II. A connection between geographical expansion and social change
III. A connection between social change and financial prosperity
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II and III

lets work with our conventional POE for such questions. Refer to Bold part in second para. So I is true for sure. that eliminates B and C. second para talk about social change but there is no direct connection between social change and geographical expansion or financial prosperity. Although passage suggest that women could aspire their own goals, but no indication of financial prosperity. Also west and east sisters could be confusing for geographical but nothing suggests expansion.So the answer should be A.

My answers and explanations above. please post OA.thanks for pushing me, i am realizing i should start working on my RC now, its high time...
mukultcs Says
Do you have OE also ?


sorry dear.. only OAs were given..
Guys try these, Please post your reasoning too

Passage 1
In choosing a method for determining climatic conditions that existed in the past, paleoclimatologists invoke four principal criteria. First, the material-rocks, lakes, vegetation, etc.-on which the method relies must be widespread enough to provide plenty of information, since analysis of material that is rarely encountered will not permit correlation with other regions or with other periods of geological history. Second, in the process of formation, the material must have received an environmental signal that reflects a change in climate and that can be deciphered by modern physical or chemical means. Third, at least some of the material must have retained the signal unaffected by subsequent changes in the environment. Fourth, it must be possible to determine the time at which the inferred climatic conditions held. This last criterion is more easily met in dating marine sediments, because dating of only a small number of layers in a marine sequence allows the age of other layers to be estimated fairly reliably by extrapolation and interpolation. By contrast, because sedimentation is much less continuous in continental regions, estimating the age of a continental bed from the known ages of beds above and below is more risky.

One very old method used in the investigation of past climatic conditions involves the measurement of water levels in ancient lakes. In temperate regions, there are enough lakes for correlations between them to give us a reliable picture. In arid and semiarid regions, on the other hand, the small number of lakes and the great distances between them reduce the possibilities for correlation. Moreover, since lake levels are controlled by rates of evaporation as well as by precipitation, the interpretation of such levels is ambiguous. For instance, the fact that lake levels in the semiarid southwestern United States appear to have been higher during the last ice age than they are now was at one time attributed to increased precipitation. On the basis of snow-line elevations, however, it has been concluded that the climate then was not necessarily wetter than it is now, but rather that both summers and winters were cooler, resulting in reduced evaporation.

Another problematic method is to reconstruct former climates on the basis of pollen profiles. The type of vegetation in a specific region is determined by identifying and counting the various pollen grains found there. Although the relationship between vegetation and climate is not as direct as the relationship between climate and lake levels, the method often works well in the temperate zones. In arid and semiarid regions in which there is not much vegetation, however, small changes in one or a few plant types can change the picture dramatically, making accurate correlations between neighboring areas difficult to obtain.


4.Which of the following would be the most likely topic for a paragraph that logically continues the passage?
(A) The kinds of plants normally found in arid regions
(B) The effect of variation in lake levels on pollen distribution
(C) The material best suited to preserving signals of climatic changes
(D) Other criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when choosing a method to determine past climatic conditions
(E) A third method for investigating past climatic conditions


Passage 2
Since the late 1970's, in the face of a severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in the United States have been trying to improve productivity-and therefore enhance their international competitiveness-through cost-cutting programs. (Cost-cutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from 1978 through 1982, productivity-the value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor input-did not improve; and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25 percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive edge.

With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25 companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a "40, 40, 20" rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number, size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major changes in equipment and process technology. The final 20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should not be tried. The well-known tools of this approach-including simplifying jobs and retraining employees to work smarter, not harder-do produce results. But the tools quickly reach the limits of what they can contribute.

Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As Abernathy's study of automobile manufacturers has shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its ability to develop new products. And managers under pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on which they are measured. Production managers have always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and maximizing output. This dimension of performance has until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers.

Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years the company regained its competitive advantage. Together with such strategies, successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.

6.In the passage, the author includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) personal observation
(B) a business principle
(C) a definition of productivity
(D) an example of a successful company
(E) an illustration of a process technology



Passage 3
The settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that explained American development in terms of westward expansion. From the perspective of women's history, Turner's exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a major drawback: his defenders and critics alike have reconstructed men's, not women's, lives on the frontier. However, precisely because of this masculine orientation, revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on women's experience introduces new themes into women's history-woman as lawmaker and entrepreneur-and, consequently, new interpretations of women's relationship to capital, labor, and statute.

Turner claimed that the frontier produced the individualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and that this individualism in turn promoted democratic institutions and economic equality. He argued for the frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all, fell under Turner's spell. In their works these authors tended to glorify women's contributions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradition, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable lot, free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters. This interpretation implied that the West provided a congenial environment where women could aspire to their own goals, free from constrictive stereotypes and sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology, the frontier had furnished "a gate of escape from the bondage of the past."

By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reactionist writers took the view that frontier women were lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensified the worst aspects of gender relations. The renaissance of the feminist movement during the 1970's led to the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar to the live of women in the East. In one now-standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence of the "cult of true womanhood" and the illusionary quality of change on the westward journey. Recently the Stasist position has been revised but not entirely discounted by new research.


4.According to the passage, Turner makes which of the following connections in his Frontier Thesis?
I.A connection between American individualism and economic equality
II.A connection between geographical expansion and social change
III.A connection between social change and financial prosperity
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II and III


my take..
1. E
2. E
3. D

Guys try these, Please post your reasoning too

Passage 1
In choosing a method for determining climatic conditions that existed in the past, paleoclimatologists invoke four principal criteria. First, the materialrocks, lakes, vegetation, etc.on which the method relies must be widespread enough to provide plenty of information, since analysis of material that is rarely encountered will not permit correlation with other regions or with other periods of geological history. Second, in the process of formation, the material must have received an environmental signal that reflects a change in climate and that can be deciphered by modern physical or chemical means. Third, at least some of the material must have retained the signal unaffected by subsequent changes in the environment. Fourth, it must be possible to determine the time at which the inferred climatic conditions held. This last criterion is more easily met in dating marine sediments, because dating of only a small number of layers in a marine sequence allows the age of other layers to be estimated fairly reliably by extrapolation and interpolation. By contrast, because sedimentation is much less continuous in continental regions, estimating the age of a continental bed from the known ages of beds above and below is more risky.

One very old method used in the investigation of past climatic conditions involves the measurement of water levels in ancient lakes. In temperate regions, there are enough lakes for correlations between them to give us a reliable picture. In arid and semiarid regions, on the other hand, the small number of lakes and the great distances between them reduce the possibilities for correlation. Moreover, since lake levels are controlled by rates of evaporation as well as by precipitation, the interpretation of such levels is ambiguous. For instance, the fact that lake levels in the semiarid southwestern United States appear to have been higher during the last ice age than they are now was at one time attributed to increased precipitation. On the basis of snow-line elevations, however, it has been concluded that the climate then was not necessarily wetter than it is now, but rather that both summers and winters were cooler, resulting in reduced evaporation.

Another problematic method is to reconstruct former climates on the basis of pollen profiles. The type of vegetation in a specific region is determined by identifying and counting the various pollen grains found there. Although the relationship between vegetation and climate is not as direct as the relationship between climate and lake levels, the method often works well in the temperate zones. In arid and semiarid regions in which there is not much vegetation, however, small changes in one or a few plant types can change the picture dramatically, making accurate correlations between neighboring areas difficult to obtain.


4.Which of the following would be the most likely topic for a paragraph that logically continues the passage?
(A) The kinds of plants normally found in arid regions
(B) The effect of variation in lake levels on pollen distribution
(C) The material best suited to preserving signals of climatic changes
(D) Other criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when choosing a method to determine past climatic conditions
(E) A third method for investigating past climatic conditions


Passage 2
Since the late 1970s, in the face of a severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in the United States have been trying to improve productivityand therefore enhance their international competitivenessthrough cost-cutting programs. (Cost-cutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from 1978 through 1982, productivitythe value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor inputdid not improve; and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25 percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive edge.

With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25 companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a 40, 40, 20 rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number, size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major changes in equipment and process technology. The final 20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should not be tried. The well-known tools of this approachincluding simplifying jobs and retraining employees to work smarter, not harderdo produce results. But the tools quickly reach the limits of what they can contribute.

Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As Abernathys study of automobile manufacturers has shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its ability to develop new products. And managers under pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on which they are measured. Production managers have always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and maximizing output. This dimension of performance has until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers.

Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years the company regained its competitive advantage. Together with such strategies, successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.

6.In the passage, the author includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) personal observation
(B) a business principle
(C) a definition of productivity
(D) an example of a successful company
(E) an illustration of a process technology



Passage 3
The settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that explained American development in terms of westward expansion. From the perspective of womens history, Turners exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a major drawback: his defenders and critics alike have reconstructed mens, not womens, lives on the frontier. However, precisely because of this masculine orientation, revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on womens experience introduces new themes into womens historywoman as lawmaker and entrepreneurand, consequently, new interpretations of womens relationship to capital, labor, and statute.

Turner claimed that the frontier produced the individualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and that this individualism in turn promoted democratic institutions and economic equality. He argued for the frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all, fell under Turners spell. In their works these authors tended to glorify womens contributions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradition, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable lot, free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters. This interpretation implied that the West provided a congenial environment where women could aspire to their own goals, free from constrictive stereotypes and sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology, the frontier had furnished a gate of escape from the bondage of the past.

By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reactionist writers took the view that frontier women were lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensified the worst aspects of gender relations. The renaissance of the feminist movement during the 1970s led to the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar to the live of women in the East. In one now-standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence of the cult of true womanhood and the illusionary quality of change on the westward journey. Recently the Stasist position has been revised but not entirely discounted by new research.


4.According to the passage, Turner makes which of the following connections in his Frontier Thesis?
I.A connection between American individualism and economic equality
II.A connection between geographical expansion and social change
III.A connection between social change and financial prosperity
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II and III

Here are the OAs:

1. B
2. E
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. E
7. D

@mukul
this RC was 4m one of the gmat forums.. dont remember exactly.. hit upon it while googling(coz i was not satisfied with my RC collection)


Do you have OE also ?
where did you get this ?? ...I wont be surprised if I got all of them wrong..anyways answers below


IMO
1 B
2 D
3 B
4 E
5 A
6 C
7 D


Here are the OAs:

1. B
2. E
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. E
7. D

@mukul
this RC was 4m one of the gmat forums.. dont remember exactly.. hit upon it while googling(coz i was not satisfied with my RC collection)
anulgoswami Says
reading comprehension has always been a problematic area for me, as there is no good source to practise for it. Can anybody tell me some good source to practice RC, besides the OG's.


Hi Anul,

When do you plan to give GMAT?

You can try Kaplan material and 1000RC.

Also you can try kaplan verbal book from here

reading comprehension has always been a problematic area for me, as there is no good source to practise for it. Can anybody tell me some good source to practice RC, besides the OG's.

where did you get this ?? ...I wont be surprised if I got all of them wrong..anyways answers below

Many literary detectives have pored over a great puzzle concerning the writer Marcel Proust: what happened in 1909? How did Contre Saint-Beuve, an essay attacking the methods of the critic Saint Beuve, turn into the start of the novel Remembrance of Things Past? A recently published letter from Proust to the editor Vallette confirms that Fallois, the editor of the 1954 edition of Contre Saint-Beuve, made an essentially correct guess about the relationship of the essay to the novel. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuves blindness to the real nature of great writing, found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments, and allowed these to take over in a steadily developing novel.
Draft passages in Prousts 1909 notebooks indicate that the transition from essay to novel began in Contre Saint-Beuve, when Proust introduced several examples to show the powerful influence that involuntary memory exerts over the creative imagination. In effect, in trying to demonstrate that the imagination is more profound and less submissive to the intellect than Saint-Beuve assumed, Proust elicited vital memories of his own and, finding subtle connections between them, began to amass the material for Remembrance. By August, Proust was writing to Vallette, informing him of his intention to develop the material as a novel. Maurice Bardeche, in Marcel Proust, romancier, has shown the importance in the drafts of Remembrance of spontaneous and apparently random associations of Prousts subconscious. As incidents and reflections occurred to Proust, he continually inserted new passages altering and expanding his narrative. But he found it difficult to control the drift of his inspiration. The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels, from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently. The beginning of control came when he saw how to connect the beginning and the end of his novel.
Intrigued by Prousts claim that he had begun and finished Remembrance at the same time, Henri Bonnet discovered that parts of Remembrances last book were actually started in 1909. Already in that year, Proust had drafted descriptions of his novels characters in their old age that would appear in the final book of Remembrance, where the permanence of art is set against the ravages of time. The letter to Vallette, drafts of the essay and novel, and Bonnets researches establish in broad outline the process by which Proust generated his novel out of the ruins of his essay. But those of us who hoped, with Kolb, that Kolbs newly published complete edition of Prousts correspondence for 1909 would document the process in greater detail are disappointed. For until Proust was confident that he was at last in sight of a viable structure for Remembrance, he told few correspondents that he was producing anything more ambitious than Contre Saint-Beuve.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) the role of involuntary memory in Prousts writing
(B) evidence concerning the genesis of Prousts novel Remembrance of Things Past
(C) conflicting scholarly opinions about the value of studying the drafts of Remembrance of Things Past
(D) Prousts correspondence and what it reveals about Remembrance of Things Past
(E) the influence of Saint-Beuves criticism on Prousts novel Remembrance of Things Past
2. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following are literary detectives who have tried, by means of either scholarship or criticism, to help solve the great puzzle mentioned in lines 1-2 EXCEPT:
(A) Bardeche
(B) Bonnet
(C) Fallois
(D) Kolb
(E) Vallette
3. According to the passage, in drafts of Contre Saint Beuve Proust set out to show that Saint-Beuve made which of the following mistakes as a critic?
I.Saint-Beuve made no effort to study the development of a novel through its drafts and revisions.
II.Saint-Beuve assigned too great a role in the creative process to a writers conscious intellect.
III.Saint-Beuve concentrated too much on plots and not enough on imagery and other elements of style.
(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III
4. Which of the following best states the authors attitude toward the information that scholars have gathered about Prousts writing in 1909?
(A) The author is disappointed that no new documents have come to light since Falloiss speculations.
(B) The author is dissatisfied because there are too many gaps and inconsistencies in the drafts.
(C) The author is confident that Falloiss 1954 guess has been proved largely correct, but regrets that still more detailed documentation concerning Prousts transition from the essay to the novel has not emerged.
(D) The author is satisfied that Falloiss judgment was largely correct, but feels that Prousts early work in designing and writing the novel was probably far more deliberate than Falloiss description of the process would suggest.
(E) The author is satisfied that the facts of Prousts life in 1909 have been thoroughly established, but believes such documents as drafts and correspondence are only of limited value in a critical assessment of Prousts writing.
5. The author of the passage implies that which of the following would be the LEAST useful source of information about Prousts transition from working on Contre Saint-Beuve to having a viable structure for Remembrance of Things Past?
(A) Falloiss comments in the 1954 edition of Contre Saint-Beuve
(B) Prousts 1909 notebooks, including the drafts of Remembrance of Things Past
(C) Prousts 1909 correspondence, excluding the letter to Vallette
(D) Bardeches Marcel Proust, romancier
(E) Bonnets researches concerning Prousts drafts of the final book of Remembrance of Things Past
6.The passage offers information to answer which of the following questions?
(A) Precisely when in 1909 did Proust decide to abandon Contre Saint-Beuve?
(B) Precisely when in 1909 did Proust decide to connect the beginning and the end of Remembrance of Things Past?
(C) What was the subject of the novel that Proust attempted in 1908?
(D) What specific criticisms of Saint-Beuve appear, in fictional form, in Remembrance of Things Past?
(E) What is a theme concerning art that appears in the final book of Remembrance of Things Past?
7. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Contre Saint-Beuve and Remembrance of Things Past as it is explained in the passage?
(A) Immediately after abandoning Contre Saint-Beuve, at Vallettes suggestion, Proust started Remembrance as a fictional demonstration that Saint-Beuve was wrong about the imagination.
(B) Immediately after abandoning Contre Saint-Beuve, at Vallettes suggestion, Proust turned his attention to Remembrance, starting with incidents that had occurred to him while planning the essay.
(C) Despondent that he could not find a coherent structure for Contre Saint-Beuve, an essay about the role of memory in fiction, Proust began instead to write Remembrance, a novel devoted to important early memories.
(D) While developing his argument about the imagination in Contre Saint-Beuve, Proust described and began to link together personal memories that became a foundation for Remembrance.
(E) While developing his argument about memory and imagination in Contre Saint-Beuve, Proust created fictional characters to embody the abstract themes in his essay.


IMO
1 B
2 D
3 B
4 E
5 A
6 C
7 D

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