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p_ratnawat Says
I have seen a lot of aid for Winners Guide for Reading comprehension. Did anybody reffered this book ? Please let me know your comments on this book.


Hi p_ratnawat,

Didnt quite get your question. Are you asking about some book?

I have seen a lot of aid for Winners Guide for Reading comprehension. Did anybody reffered this book ? Please let me know your comments on this book.

Try this one, As always please post your reasoning


The number of women directors appointed to corporate boards in the United States has increased dramatically, but the ratio of female to male directors remains low. Although pressure to recruit women directors, unlike that to employ women in the general work force, does not derive from legislation, it is nevertheless real.

Although small companies were the first to have women directors, large corporations currently have a higher percentage of women on their boards. When the chairs of these large corporations began recruiting women to serve on boards, they initially sought women who were chief executive officers (CEOs) of large corporations. However, such women CEOs are still rare. In addition, the ideal of six CEOs (female or male) serving on the board of each of the largest corporations is realizable only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises the specter of director over-commitment and the resultant dilution of contribution. Consequently, the chairs next sought women in business who had the equivalent of CEO experience. However, since it is only recently that large numbers of women have begun to rise in management, the chairs began to recruit women of high achievement outside the business world. Many such women are well known for their contributions in government, education, and the nonprofit sector. The fact that the women from these sectors who were appointed were often acquaintances of the boards chairs seems quite reasonable: chairs have always considered it important for directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom.

Although many successful women from outside the business world are unknown to corporate leaders, these women are particularly qualified to serve on boards because of the changing nature of corporations. Today a companys ability to be responsive to the concerns of the community and the environment can influence that companys growth and survival. Women are uniquely positioned to be responsive to some of these concerns. Although conditions have changed, it should be remembered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty years old. Women of that generation were often encouraged to direct their attention toward efforts to improve the community. This fact is reflected in the career development of most of the outstandingly successful women of the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve on corporate boards: 25 percent are in education and 22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit sector.

One organization of women directors is helping business become more responsive to the changing needs of society by raising the level of corporate awareness about social issues, such as problems with the economy, government regulation, the aging population, and the environment. This organization also serves as a resource center of information on accomplished women who are potential candidates for corporate boards.


7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A problem is described, and then reasons why various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are discussed.
(B) A problem is described, and then an advantage of resolving it is offered.
(C) A problem is described, and then reasons for its continuing existence are summarized.
(D) The historical origins of a problem are described, and then various measures that have successfully resolved it are discussed.
(E) The causes of a problem are described, and then its effects are discussed.

My take on this is B as

A problem is definitely described here as stated in Line 1 "The number of women directors appointed to corporate boards in the United States has increased dramatically, but the ratio of female to male directors remains low."

D can be ruled out as there are no historical origins mentioned
A is no good because there is no mention if proposed solutions have succeeded or failed
C The author doesnot keep on discussing the problem .He also suggests some resolution
E Again there are no effects described here
Try this one, As always please post your reasoning


The number of women directors appointed to corporate boards in the United States has increased dramatically, but the ratio of female to male directors remains low. Although pressure to recruit women directors, unlike that to employ women in the general work force, does not derive from legislation, it is nevertheless real.

Although small companies were the first to have women directors, large corporations currently have a higher percentage of women on their boards. When the chairs of these large corporations began recruiting women to serve on boards, they initially sought women who were chief executive officers (CEOs) of large corporations. However, such women CEOs are still rare. In addition, the ideal of six CEOs (female or male) serving on the board of each of the largest corporations is realizable only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises the specter of director over-commitment and the resultant dilution of contribution. Consequently, the chairs next sought women in business who had the equivalent of CEO experience. However, since it is only recently that large numbers of women have begun to rise in management, the chairs began to recruit women of high achievement outside the business world. Many such women are well known for their contributions in government, education, and the nonprofit sector. The fact that the women from these sectors who were appointed were often acquaintances of the boards chairs seems quite reasonable: chairs have always considered it important for directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom.

Although many successful women from outside the business world are unknown to corporate leaders, these women are particularly qualified to serve on boards because of the changing nature of corporations. Today a companys ability to be responsive to the concerns of the community and the environment can influence that companys growth and survival. Women are uniquely positioned to be responsive to some of these concerns. Although conditions have changed, it should be remembered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty years old. Women of that generation were often encouraged to direct their attention toward efforts to improve the community. This fact is reflected in the career development of most of the outstandingly successful women of the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve on corporate boards: 25 percent are in education and 22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit sector.

One organization of women directors is helping business become more responsive to the changing needs of society by raising the level of corporate awareness about social issues, such as problems with the economy, government regulation, the aging population, and the environment. This organization also serves as a resource center of information on accomplished women who are potential candidates for corporate boards.


7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A problem is described, and then reasons why various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are discussed.
(B) A problem is described, and then an advantage of resolving it is offered.
(C) A problem is described, and then reasons for its continuing existence are summarized.
(D) The historical origins of a problem are described, and then various measures that have successfully resolved it are discussed.
(E) The causes of a problem are described, and then its effects are discussed.

tough para and question as well.
I will go with B here. if you scan through the choices, u will see 3:1:1 split here also. i love such questions but i hate them when i get them wrong :(...
A problem is described, is it true? yes, ( but the ratio of female to male directors remains low.....)there is no historical origin of a problem in first para and no cause and effect thing as well. So rule out D and E. If we see the second part in remaining choices, then A suggests the reasons why proposed solution failed or succeeded. nothing in the passage talks about success of failures of a solution. C suggests the reasons for continuous existence of prob are discussed, partly it is true, but looks at the last para. It has nothing to do with existence of a prob.

So B is Ok. advantages of having more female in corporate boards are discussed.

Try this one, As always please post your reasoning


The number of women directors appointed to corporate boards in the United States has increased dramatically, but the ratio of female to male directors remains low. Although pressure to recruit women directors, unlike that to employ women in the general work force, does not derive from legislation, it is nevertheless real.

Although small companies were the first to have women directors, large corporations currently have a higher percentage of women on their boards. When the chairs of these large corporations began recruiting women to serve on boards, they initially sought women who were chief executive officers (CEOs) of large corporations. However, such women CEOs are still rare. In addition, the ideal of six CEOs (female or male) serving on the board of each of the largest corporations is realizable only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises the specter of director over-commitment and the resultant dilution of contribution. Consequently, the chairs next sought women in business who had the equivalent of CEO experience. However, since it is only recently that large numbers of women have begun to rise in management, the chairs began to recruit women of high achievement outside the business world. Many such women are well known for their contributions in government, education, and the nonprofit sector. The fact that the women from these sectors who were appointed were often acquaintances of the boards chairs seems quite reasonable: chairs have always considered it important for directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom.

Although many successful women from outside the business world are unknown to corporate leaders, these women are particularly qualified to serve on boards because of the changing nature of corporations. Today a companys ability to be responsive to the concerns of the community and the environment can influence that companys growth and survival. Women are uniquely positioned to be responsive to some of these concerns. Although conditions have changed, it should be remembered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty years old. Women of that generation were often encouraged to direct their attention toward efforts to improve the community. This fact is reflected in the career development of most of the outstandingly successful women of the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve on corporate boards: 25 percent are in education and 22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit sector.

One organization of women directors is helping business become more responsive to the changing needs of society by raising the level of corporate awareness about social issues, such as problems with the economy, government regulation, the aging population, and the environment. This organization also serves as a resource center of information on accomplished women who are potential candidates for corporate boards.


7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A problem is described, and then reasons why various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are discussed.
(B) A problem is described, and then an advantage of resolving it is offered.
(C) A problem is described, and then reasons for its continuing existence are summarized.
(D) The historical origins of a problem are described, and then various measures that have successfully resolved it are discussed.
(E) The causes of a problem are described, and then its effects are discussed.

mukultcs Says
Answers highlighted above. Please post OA and OE.

OAs:
1. E
2. A
3. A
4. C

sorry dont have the OEs..
try this..

(This passage is excerpted from material published in 1997) Whereas
United States economic productivity grew at an annual rate of 3...........

Q1: Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the budget
deficit explanation for the discrepancy mentioned in line 27(boldface)?
A. Research shows that the federal budget deficit has traditionally
caused service companies to invest less money in research and
development of new technologies.
B. New technologies have been shown to play a significant role in
companies that have been able to increase their service productivity.
C. In both service sector and manufacturing, productivity
improvements are concentrated in gains in quality.
D. The service sector typically requires larger investments in new
technology in order to maintain productivity growth than dose
manufacturing
E. High interest rates tend to slow the growth of manufacturing
productivity as much as they slow the growth of service-sector
productivity in the United States. Correct


Q2. The passage states which of the following about the effect of
foreign competition on the American manufacturing sector since the
1970Ts?
A. It has often been exaggerated. Correct
B. It has not been a direct cause of job loss.
C. It has in large part been responsible for the subsequent slowing of
productivity growth.
D. It has slowed growth in the demand for manufactured goods in the
United States.
E. It has been responsible for the majority of American jobs lost in
manufacturing.

Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was
true of the United States manufacturing sector in the years immediately
prior to 1980?
A. It was performing relatively poorly.Correct
B. It was in a position of world prominence.
C. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 3 percent.
D. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 1 percent.
E. Its level of productivity was higher than afterward.
Q4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which
of the following statements about productivity improvements in United
States service companies?
A. Such improvements would be largely attributable to efficiencies
resulting from corporate takeovers.
B. Such improvements would depend more on wise implementation of
technology than on managers' choice of skilled workers.
C. Such improvements would be more easily accomplished if there
were fewer governmental regulations of the service sector.Correct

D. Such improvements would require companies to invest heavily in the
development of new technologies.
E. Such improvements would be attributable primarily to companies'
facing global competitive pressure.


Answers highlighted above. Please post OA and OE.
try this..

Q1: Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the budget
deficit explanation for the discrepancy mentioned in line 27(boldface)?
A. Research shows that the federal budget deficit has traditionally
caused service companies to invest less money in research and
development of new technologies.
B. New technologies have been shown to play a significant role in
companies that have been able to increase their service productivity.
C. In both service sector and manufacturing, productivity
improvements are concentrated in gains in quality.
D. The service sector typically requires larger investments in new
technology in order to maintain productivity growth than dose
manufacturing
E. High interest rates tend to slow the growth of manufacturing
productivity as much as they slow the growth of service-sector
productivity in the United States.
Q2. The passage states which of the following about the effect of
foreign competition on the American manufacturing sector since the
1970Ts?
A. It has often been exaggerated. (True but not "often)
B. It has not been a direct cause of job loss. (correct)
C. It has in large part been responsible for the subsequent slowing of
productivity growth. (its definately not in large part refer this:while some manufacturing jobs have been lost due to foreign competition, many more have been lost simply ....)
D. It has slowed growth in the demand for manufactured goods in the
United States.
E. It has been responsible for the majority of American jobs lost in
manufacturing. (wrong again)
Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was
true of the United States manufacturing sector in the years immediately
prior to 1980? answer is in only 1 sentence in para: Since 1980, productivity improvements in manufacturing have moved the United States from a position of acute decline in manufacturing to one of world prominence.
A. It was performing relatively poorly. correct.
B. It was in a position of world prominence. (after 1980 this happened not before that... C,D,E can be eliminated likewise)
C. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 3 percent.
D. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 1 percent.
E. Its level of productivity was higher than afterward.
Q4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which
of the following statements about productivity improvements in United
States service companies?
A. Such improvements would be largely attributable to efficiencies
resulting from corporate takeovers.(opposite to what is stated)
B. Such improvements would depend more on wise implementation of
technology than on managers' choice of skilled workers. (opposite again)
C. Such improvements would be more easily accomplished if there
were fewer governmental regulations of the service sector. (Correct choice, refer the last sentence: The culprits for
service-sector productivity stagnation are the forces such as corporate
takeovers and unnecessary governmental regulation that distract
managers from the task of making optimal use of available resources..remove the govt. regulation and improve productivity)

D. Such improvements would require companies to invest heavily in the
development of new technologies.
E. Such improvements would be attributable primarily to companies'
facing global competitive pressure.

my answers are:
1) E. I somehow not understand the funda of federal budget. if budget is lower, interest rate should be higher. i could narrow down to C and E. C looks too broad in scope so picked E.

2) B. explanation in blue
3) A. explanation in blue
4) C. explanation in blue

please post OA.

try this..

(This passage is excerpted from material published in 1997) Whereas
United States economic productivity grew at an annual rate of 3
percent from 1945 to 1965, it has grown at an annual rate of only
about 1 percent since the early 1970's. What might be preventing
higher productivity growth? Clearly, the manufacturing sector of the
economy cannot be blamed. Since 1980, productivity improvements in
manufacturing have moved the United States from a position of acute
decline in manufacturing to one of world prominence. Manufacturing,
however, constitutes a relatively small proportion of the economy. In
1992, goods-producing businesses employed only 19.1 percent of
American workers, whereas service-producing businesses employed 70
percent. Although the service sector has grown since the late 1970's,
its productivity growth has declined. Several explanations have been
Offered for this declined and for the discrepancy in productivity
growth between the manufacturing and service sectors. One is that
traditional measures fail to reflect service-sector productivity growth
because it has been concentrated in improved quality of services. Yet
traditional measures of manufacturing productivity have shown
significant increases despite the under-measurement of quality,
whereas service productivity has continued to stagnate. Others argue
that since the 1970's, manufacturing workers, faced with strong foreign
competition, have learned to work more efficiently in order to keep
their jobs in the United States, but service workers, who are typically
under less global competitive pressure, have not. However, the
pressure on manufacturing workers in the United States to work more
efficiently has generally been overstated, often for political reasons. In
fact, while some manufacturing jobs have been lost due to foreign
competition, many more have been lost simply because of slow growth
in demand for manufactured goods. Yet another explanation blames the
federal budget deficit: if it were lower, interest rate would be lower too,
thereby increasing investment in the development of new technologies,
which would spur productivity growth in the service sector. There is,
however, no dearth of techno-logical resources, rather, managers in the
service sector fail to take advantage of widely available skills and machines. High productivity growth levels attained by leading-edge
service companies indicate that service sector managers who wisely
implement available technology and choose skillful workers can
significantly improve their companies' productivity. The culprits for
service-sector productivity stagnation are the forcessuch as corporate
takeovers and unnecessary governmental regulationthat distract
managers from the task of making optimal use of available resources.
Q1: Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the budget
deficit explanation for the discrepancy mentioned in line 27(boldface)?
A. Research shows that the federal budget deficit has traditionally
caused service companies to invest less money in research and
development of new technologies.
B. New technologies have been shown to play a significant role in
companies that have been able to increase their service productivity.
C. In both service sector and manufacturing, productivity
improvements are concentrated in gains in quality.
D. The service sector typically requires larger investments in new
technology in order to maintain productivity growth than dose
manufacturing
E. High interest rates tend to slow the growth of manufacturing
productivity as much as they slow the growth of service-sector
productivity in the United States.
Q2. The passage states which of the following about the effect of
foreign competition on the American manufacturing sector since the
1970Ts?
A. It has often been exaggerated.
B. It has not been a direct cause of job loss.
C. It has in large part been responsible for the subsequent slowing of
productivity growth.
D. It has slowed growth in the demand for manufactured goods in the
United States.
E. It has been responsible for the majority of American jobs lost in
manufacturing.
Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was
true of the United States manufacturing sector in the years immediately
prior to 1980?
A. It was performing relatively poorly.
B. It was in a position of world prominence.
C. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 3 percent.
D. It was increasing its productivity at an annual rate of 1 percent.
E. Its level of productivity was higher than afterward.
Q4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which
of the following statements about productivity improvements in United
States service companies?
A. Such improvements would be largely attributable to efficiencies
resulting from corporate takeovers.
B. Such improvements would depend more on wise implementation of
technology than on managers' choice of skilled workers.
C. Such improvements would be more easily accomplished if there
were fewer governmental regulations of the service sector.
D. Such improvements would require companies to invest heavily in the
development of new technologies.
E. Such improvements would be attributable primarily to companies'
facing global competitive pressure.

OA are
E
E
D

but I had some doubts.

In second question the passage mentions "Every company I know that has freed itself from the paradox has done so, in part, by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; "

This means that manufacturing strategy is composed of manufacturing structure and process technology...and then author gives and example of manufacturing strategy, which is an example of process tech as well..therefore answer can't be point E. Also author doesn't explicitly mention business principle anywhere although 2nd para feels like a business principle


third question is turner makes which of the following connections,but the second para begin with "Turner claims....." i.e Author says that Turner had claimed so and so...but Author never mentions that turner achieved this. So I think "I" point can't be correct.


Any thoughts where I am going wrong ??


I see. you are mixing things in second question. refer to the blue part above. Process technology is a part of Manufacturing strategy or subset u can say. so example of manu. strategy doesnt imply automatically for process technology and so E is the answer.

for 3rd question i am still confused, may be dare2 can help here. But i can say smthing about ur query. questions asks about the connection turner makes, it has nothing to do with what turner claimed or achieved. I can make connection with out claiming or achieving anything. so as long as there is a connection it a true choice. But
Can somone explain the connection between geographical expansion and social change??

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