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here are the OAs..
1e
2a
3c
4c
5b
6e
7d
8a
9b

u've solved it almost perfectly.. plz post ur explanations..

i dont have the OEs.. this doc file that m using only has answers but no explanations..


Hi,

I got these

1a
2a
3c
4e
5b
6e
7d
8c
9b

Got three wrong
Try this...had doubt in just one q so posting only that one

Please post your reasoning as well



At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest in Native American customs and an increasing desire to understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists to begin recording the life stories of Native American. Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations(but no mention of them as best), and they believed that the personal stories, even of a single individual, could increase their understanding of the cultures that they had been observing from without. In addition many ethnologists at the turn of the century believed that Native American manners and customs were rapidly disappearing, and that it was important to preserve for posterity as much information as could be adequately recorded before the cultures disappeared forever.
There were, however, arguments against this method as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information. Franz Boas, for example, described autobiographies as being "of limited value, and useful chiefly for the study of the perversion of truth by memory," while Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent enough time with the tribes they were observing, and inevitably derived results too tinged by the investigator's own emotional tone to be reliable.
Even more importantly, as these life stories moved from the traditional oral mode to recorded written form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in English and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers. Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead relatives crucial to their family stories.
Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture.


8.It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the usefulness of life stories as a source of ethnographic information?
(A) They can be a source of information about how people in a culture view the world.
(B) They are most useful as a source of linguistic information.
(C) They require editing and interpretation before they can be useful.
(D) They are most useful as a source of information about ancestry.
(E) They provide incidental information rather than significant insights into a way of life.


well.. let me give it a try..
option B and option D are out.. coz 'most useful as a source' is too extreme..

option E is refuted in the 3rd paragraph(marked in bold)..

option A will be an assumption.. no evidence is given regarding this in the passage..

option C is the best of all option.. supporting evidences are given in 1st passage.. 'autobiography remains a useful tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture.'

hence i'll go with option C.
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IMO

1 E
2 A
3 D
4 C
5 B
6 E
7 D
8 A
9 B

Please post OAs and OEs


here are the OAs..
1e
2a
3c
4c
5b
6e
7d
8a
9b

u've solved it almost perfectly.. plz post ur explanations..

i dont have the OEs.. this doc file that m using only has answers but no explanations..
IMO

1 E
2 A
3 D
4 C
5 B
6 E
7 D
8 A
9 B

Please post OAs and OEs

I got the same answers as you except for Q 3 which I marked as C

Try this...had doubt in just one q so posting only that one

Please post your reasoning as well



At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest in Native American customs and an increasing desire to understand Native American culture prompted ethnologists to begin recording the life stories of Native American. Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations, and they believed that the personal stories, even of a single individual, could increase their understanding of the cultures that they had been observing from without. In addition many ethnologists at the turn of the century believed that Native American manners and customs were rapidly disappearing, and that it was important to preserve for posterity as much information as could be adequately recorded before the cultures disappeared forever.
There were, however, arguments against this method as a way of acquiring accurate and complete information. Franz Boas, for example, described autobiographies as being of limited value, and useful chiefly for the study of the perversion of truth by memory, while Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent enough time with the tribes they were observing, and inevitably derived results too tinged by the investigators own emotional tone to be reliable.
Even more importantly, as these life stories moved from the traditional oral mode to recorded written form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in English and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers. Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead relatives crucial to their family stories.
Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful tool for ethnological research: such personal reminiscences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture.


8.It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the usefulness of life stories as a source of ethnographic information?
(A) They can be a source of information about how people in a culture view the world.
(B) They are most useful as a source of linguistic information.
(C) They require editing and interpretation before they can be useful.
(D) They are most useful as a source of information about ancestry.
(E) They provide incidental information rather than significant insights into a way of life.

Most economists in the United States seem captivated by the spell of the free market. Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market. A price that is determined by the seller or, for that matter, established by anyone other than the aggregate of consumers seems pernicious. Accordingly, it requires a major act of will to think of price-fixing (the determination of prices by the seller) as both normal and having a valuable economic function. In fact, price-fixing is normal in all industrialized societies because the industrial system itself provides, as an effortless consequence of its own development, the price-fixing that it requires. Modern industrial planning requires and rewards great size. Hence, a comparatively small number of large firms will be competing for the same group of consumers. That each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recognized by advocates of free-market economic theories. But each large firm will also act with full consideration of the needs that it has in common with the other large firms competing for the same customers. Each large firm will thus avoid significant price-cutting, because price-cutting would be prejudicial to the common interest in a stable demand for products. Most economists do not see price-fixing when it occurs because they expect it to be brought about by a number of explicit agreements among large firms; it is not.

Moreover, those economists who argue that allowing the free market to operate without interference is the most efficient method of establishing prices have not considered the economies of non-socialist countries other than the United states. These economies employ intentional price-fixing, usually in an overt fashion. Formal price-fixing by cartel and informal price-fixing by agreements covering the members of an industry are commonplace. Were there something peculiarly efficient about the free market and inefficient about price-fixing, the countries that have avoided the first and used the second would have suffered drastically in their economic development. There is no indication that they have.

Socialist industry also works within a framework of controlled prices. In the early 1970s, the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries some of the flexibility in adjusting prices that a more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist system. Economists in the United States have hailed the change as a return to the free market. But Soviet firms are no more subject to prices established by a free market over which they exercise little influence than are capitalist firms; rather, Soviet firms have been given the power to fix prices.



IMO

1 E
2 A
3 D
4 C
5 B
6 E
7 D
8 A
9 B

Please post OAs and OEs

Most economists in the United States seem captivated by the spell of the free market. Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market. A price that is determined by the seller or, for that matter, established by anyone other than the aggregate of consumers seems pernicious. Accordingly, it requires a major act of will to think of price-fixing (the determination of prices by the seller) as both "normal" and having a valuable economic function. In fact, price-fixing is normal in all industrialized societies because the industrial system itself provides, as an effortless consequence of its own development, the price-fixing that it requires. Modern industrial planning requires and rewards great size. Hence, a comparatively small number of large firms will be competing for the same group of consumers. That each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recognized by advocates of free-market economic theories. But each large firm will also act with full consideration of the needs that it has in common with the other large firms competing for the same customers. Each large firm will thus avoid significant price-cutting, because price-cutting would be prejudicial to the common interest in a stable demand for products. Most economists do not see price-fixing when it occurs because they expect it to be brought about by a number of explicit agreements among large firms; it is not.

Moreover, those economists who argue that allowing the free market to operate without interference is the most efficient method of establishing prices have not considered the economies of non-socialist countries other than the United states. These economies employ intentional price-fixing, usually in an overt fashion. Formal price-fixing by cartel and informal price-fixing by agreements covering the members of an industry are commonplace. Were there something peculiarly efficient about the free market and inefficient about price-fixing, the countries that have avoided the first and used the second would have suffered drastically in their economic development. There is no indication that they have.

Socialist industry also works within a framework of controlled prices. In the early 1970's, the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries some of the flexibility in adjusting prices that a more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist system. Economists in the United States have hailed the change as a return to the free market. But Soviet firms are no more subject to prices established by a free market over which they exercise little influence than are capitalist firms; rather, Soviet firms have been given the power to fix prices.


1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) refute the theory that the free market plays a useful role in the development of industrialized societies
(B) suggest methods by which economists and members of the government of the United States can recognize and combat price-fixing by large firms
(C) show that in industrialized societies price-fixing and the operation of the free market are not only compatible but also mutually beneficial
(D) explain the various ways in which industrialized societies can fix prices in order to stabilize the free market
(E) argue that price-fixing, in one form or another, is an inevitable part of and benefit to the economy of any industrialized society
2.The passage provides information that would answer which of the following questions about price-fixing?
I.What are some of the ways in which prices can be fixed?
II.For what products is price-fixing likely to be more profitable that the operation of the free market?
III.Is price-fixing more common in socialist industrialized societies or in non-socialist industrialized societies?
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
3.The author's attitude toward "Most economists in the United States"(line 1) can best be described as
(A) spiteful and envious
(B) scornful and denunciatory
(C) critical and condescending
(D) ambivalent but deferential
(E) uncertain but interested
4.It can be inferred from the author's argument that a price fixed by the seller "seems pernicious" (line 7) because
(A) people do not have confidence in large firms
(B) people do not expect the government to regulate prices
(C) most economists believe that consumers as a group should determine prices
(D) most economists associate fixed prices with communist and socialist economies
(E) most economists believe that no one group should determine prices
5.The suggestion in the passage that price-fixing in industrialized societies is normal arises from the author's statement that price-fixing is
(A) a profitable result of economic development
(B) an inevitable result of the industrial system
(C) the result of a number of carefully organized decisions
(D) a phenomenon common to industrialized and non-industrialized societies
(E) a phenomenon best achieved cooperatively by government and industry
6.According to the author, price-fixing in non-socialist countries is often
(A) accidental but productive
(B) illegal but useful
(C) legal and innovative
(D) traditional and rigid
(E) intentional and widespread
7.According to the author, what is the result of the Soviet Union's change in economic policy in the 1970's?
(A) Soviet firms show greater profit.
(B) Soviet firms have less control over the free market.
(C) Soviet firms are able to adjust to technological advances.
(D) Soviet firms have some authority to fix prices.
(E) Soviet firms are more responsive to the free market.
8.With which of the following statements regarding the behavior of large firms in industrialized societies would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) The directors of large firms will continue to anticipate the demand for products.
(B) The directors of large firms are less interested in achieving a predictable level of profit than in achieving a large profit.
(C) The directors of large firms will strive to reduce the costs of their products.
(D) Many directors of large firms believe that the government should establish the prices that will be charged for products.
(E) Many directors of large firms believe that the price charged for products is likely to increase annually.
9.In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) predicting the consequences of a practice
(B) criticizing a point of view
(C) calling attention to recent discoveries
(D) proposing a topic for research
(E) summarizing conflicting opinions

y is this thread so inactive(just 19 pages) when this thread shd have been da most active one.. RCs r the nightmares of most gmat takers.. :)

well.. RC is the section which i fear the most.. but its time to face it..

done with SCs, its time 2 move on with CRs and RCs.. m planning 2 start CR n RC 4m 2morrow onwards.. will keep posting questions whichever i find difficult..

but b4 dat i need some advices n guidances.. wat is da best strategy to appoach RC question?? i dont think taking notes is feasible in gmat coz of the time-bound.. arguing with the author while reading the passage may b a better approach.. but if u guys who have already done with RCs preparation put out some of your valuable suggestions then it'll b of tremendous help..

thanks in advance..


nice initiation Dare2. one good quality of a future leader... :)
if u have both CR and RC untouched, then start with CR. get ur grip on assumption, stregthen, weaken and most important inference questions. then move to RC. 2 out of 3 questions in RC will be requiring ur above CR questions strategy. Start to read slowly and understand the passage like a story. unless u understand what`s going on, dont move to questions. once u r done with passage, questions will looks smoother.

y is this thread so inactive(just 19 pages) when this thread shd have been da most active one.. RCs r the nightmares of most gmat takers.. :)

well.. RC is the section which i fear the most.. but its time to face it..

done with SCs, its time 2 move on with CRs and RCs.. m planning 2 start CR n RC 4m 2morrow onwards.. will keep posting questions whichever i find difficult..

but b4 dat i need some advices n guidances.. wat is da best strategy to appoach RC question?? i dont think taking notes is feasible in gmat coz of the time-bound.. arguing with the author while reading the passage may b a better approach.. but if u guys who have already done with RCs preparation put out some of your valuable suggestions then it'll b of tremendous help..

thanks in advance..

Guys , try this one and please post explanations of ur answers

The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
(FSMA) brought dramatic changes to the American
financial system. Most notably, affiliations are
now permitted between banks, brokerage firms, and
insurers. To some degree, the laws that
constitute the FSMA formally recognize that new
financial products, as well as new
technology-driven ways of delivering these
products, were already blurring the boundaries
between institutions. Nevertheless, the FSMA
represents a serious departure from
Depression-era legislation that had been in place
for years, such as the Banking Act of 1933; this
act prohibited cross marketing of financial
services and generally gave the government a
tight rein on banking practices.

While some are concerned about the financial
stability of the multi-purpose institutions that
will form as a result of the new laws, many have
concerns about issues of privacy. It is now
possible for a bank that is affiliated with an
insurance company or brokerage firm to share data
about its customers with its new partners. This
data may not only be financial, but also could
include medical records, job histories, and other
biographical information that a customer might
reasonably feel is private. Even if this shared
information is not used to directly harm the
customer, a perceived knowledge of his or her
interests could lead to unwelcome marketing
efforts, and further dissemination of the data
through the sale of marketing lists to other
businesses.

Defenders of the FSMA point out that provisions
meant to protect private information are included
in the new laws. These provisions include the
requirement that customers be given the
opportunity to opt out of having their
information shared with third parties, the
disclosure of financial affiliations, and a ban
on pretext calling, whereby businesses obtain
customer information under false pretenses.
However, many people point to loopholes in these
provisions, and remain skeptical that any
measures can now ensure a level of customer
confidentiality comparable to that which existed
before the FSMA laws took effect.

The author's attitude toward the Financial Services Modernization Act is best described as

A. uncaring, but thorough
B. adulatory, but clearly biased
C. skeptical, but knowledgeable
D. balanced, though alert to problems
E. analytical, though troubled


OA is indeed D.

OE : The author is objective throughout the passage. One could say he is alert to problems with the Act. (D) is correct.
Guys , try this one and please post explanations of ur answers

The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
(FSMA) brought dramatic changes to the American
financial system.


I will go with option D
Guys , try this one and please post explanations of ur answers

The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
(FSMA) brought dramatic changes to the American
financial system. Most notably, affiliations are
now permitted between banks, brokerage firms, and
insurers. To some degree, the laws that
constitute the FSMA formally recognize that new
financial products, as well as new
technology-driven ways of delivering these
products, were already blurring the boundaries
between institutions. Nevertheless, the FSMA
represents a serious departure from
Depression-era legislation that had been in place
for years, such as the Banking Act of 1933; this
act prohibited cross marketing of financial
services and generally gave the government a
tight rein on banking practices.

While some are concerned about the financial
stability of the multi-purpose institutions that
will form as a result of the new laws, many have
concerns about issues of privacy. It is now
possible for a bank that is affiliated with an
insurance company or brokerage firm to share data
about its customers with its new partners. This
data may not only be financial, but also could
include medical records, job histories, and other
biographical information that a customer might
reasonably feel is private. Even if this shared
information is not used to directly harm the
customer, a perceived knowledge of his or her
interests could lead to unwelcome marketing
efforts, and further dissemination of the data
through the sale of marketing lists to other
businesses.

Defenders of the FSMA point out that provisions
meant to protect private information are included
in the new laws. These provisions include the
requirement that customers be given the
opportunity to opt out of having their
information shared with third parties, the
disclosure of financial affiliations, and a ban
on pretext calling, whereby businesses obtain
customer information under false pretenses.
However, many people point to loopholes in these
provisions, and remain skeptical that any
measures can now ensure a level of customer
confidentiality comparable to that which existed
before the FSMA laws took effect.

The author's attitude toward the Financial Services Modernization Act is best described as

A. uncaring, but thorough
B. adulatory, but clearly biased
C. skeptical, but knowledgeable
D. balanced, though alert to problems
E. analytical, though troubled


IMO answer should be D. A,B represents extremes so out. Authors attitude is surely not troubled so that takes out E. "Even if this shared
information is not used to..." represents the alert to problems. So i will go with D. please post OA.

Guys , try this one and please post explanations of ur answers

The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
(FSMA) brought dramatic changes to the American
financial system. Most notably, affiliations are
now permitted between banks, brokerage firms, and
insurers. To some degree, the laws that
constitute the FSMA formally recognize that new
financial products, as well as new
technology-driven ways of delivering these
products, were already blurring the boundaries
between institutions. Nevertheless, the FSMA
represents a serious departure from
Depression-era legislation that had been in place
for years, such as the Banking Act of 1933; this
act prohibited cross marketing of financial
services and generally gave the government a
tight rein on banking practices.

While some are concerned about the financial
stability of the multi-purpose institutions that
will form as a result of the new laws, many have
concerns about issues of privacy. It is now
possible for a bank that is affiliated with an
insurance company or brokerage firm to share data
about its customers with its new partners. This
data may not only be financial, but also could
include medical records, job histories, and other
biographical information that a customer might
reasonably feel is private. Even if this shared
information is not used to directly harm the
customer, a perceived knowledge of his or her
interests could lead to unwelcome marketing
efforts, and further dissemination of the data
through the sale of marketing lists to other
businesses.

Defenders of the FSMA point out that provisions
meant to protect private information are included
in the new laws. These provisions include the
requirement that customers be given the
opportunity to opt out of having their
information shared with third parties, the
disclosure of financial affiliations, and a ban
on pretext calling, whereby businesses obtain
customer information under false pretenses.
However, many people point to loopholes in these
provisions, and remain skeptical that any
measures can now ensure a level of customer
confidentiality comparable to that which existed
before the FSMA laws took effect.

The author's attitude toward the Financial Services Modernization Act is best described as

A. uncaring, but thorough
B. adulatory, but clearly biased
C. skeptical, but knowledgeable
D. balanced, though alert to problems
E. analytical, though troubled

Hi ,
First of all can you please tell me the RC's difference in GMAT and CAT.
Secondly , my accuracy is very less in the RC .Kindly provide me the tips to improve it..I need it ..

Hello friends,

I have joined PG recently and am looking to give GMAT. i too would like to join this thread, kindly add me up for all the future posts.

regards
sandeep.

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