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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writing the history of United States women. Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish (1736–1818) makes little effort to place her story in the context of recent historiography on women. Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. Although both books offer the reader the opportunity to assess this controversy regarding women’s status, only Lebsock’s deals with it directly. She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example. In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status.


The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were

(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men

(B) more likely to own real estate

(C) generally more economically independent

(D) more independent in conducting their private lives

(E) less likely to work as school superintendents


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 Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger noncompliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.


The primary purpose of the passage is to

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Can anyone pls share some good reading resources for GMAT RCs

According to the passage, many African American people joined the armed forces during the First World War for which of the following reasons?


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It can be inferred from the passage that the “scholars” mentioned in line 24 believe which of the following to be true?

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The passage suggests that many African American people responded to their experiences in the armed forces in which of the following ways?

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When Jamaican-born social activist Marcus Garvey came to the United States in 1916, he arrived at precisely the right historical moment. What made the moment right was the return of African American soldiers from the First World War in 1918, which created an ideal constituency for someone with Garvey’s message of unity, pride, and improved conditions for African American communities. Hoping to participate in the traditional American ethos of individual success, many African American people entered the armed forces with enthusiasm, only to find themselves segregated from white troops and subjected to numerous indignities. They returned to a United States that was as segregated as it had been before the war. Considering similar experiences, anthropologist Anthony F. C. Wallace has argued that when a perceptible gap arises between a culture’s expectations and the reality of that culture, the resulting tension can inspire a revitalization movement: an organized, conscious effort to construct a culture that fulfills longstanding expectations. Some scholars have argued that Garvey created the consciousness from which he built, in the 1920s, the largest revitalization movement in African American history. But such an argument only tends to obscure the consciousness of identity, strength, and sense of history that already existed in the African American community. Garvey did not create this consciousness; rather, he gave this consciousness its political expression.

According to the passage, which of the following contributed to Marcus Garvey’s success?


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hiii..puys! I have started my preparation days back.. the problem is i cant carry the book to office, so if u have any PDFs please share..

in the two decades between 1910 and 1930, over 
ten percent to the black population of the united states 
left the south, where the preponderance of the black 
population had been located, and migrated to northern 
(5) states, with the largest number moving, it is claimed, 
between 1916 and 1918. it has been frequently assumed, 
but not proved, that the majority of the migrants in 
what has come to be called the great migration came 
from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent 
(10) factors: the collapse of the cotton industry following 
the boll weevil infestation, which began in 1898, and 
increased demand in the north for labor following 
the cessation of european immigration caused by the 
outbreak of the first world war in 1914. this assump- 
(15) tion has led to the conclusion that the migrants' subse- 
quent lack of economic mobility in the north is tied to 
rural background, a background that implies unfamil- 
iarity with urban living and a lack of industrial skills. 

but the question of who actually left the south has 
(20) never been rigorously investigated. although numerous 
investigations document an exodus from rural southern 
areas to southern cities prior to the great migration. 
no one has considered whether the same migrants then 
moved on to northern cities. in 1910 over 600,000 
(25) black workers, or ten percent of the black work force, 
reported themselves to be engaged in "manufacturing 
and mechanical pursuits," the federal census category 
roughly encompassing the entire industrial sector. the 
great migration could easily have been made up entirely 
(30) of this group and their families. it is perhaps surprising 
to argue that an employed population could be enticed 
to move, but an explanation lies in the labor conditions 
then prevalent in the south. 

about thirty-five percent of the urban black popu- 
(35) lation in the south was engaged in skilled trades. some 
were from the old artisan class of slavery-blacksmiths. 
masons, carpenters-which had had a monopoly of 
certain trades, but they were gradually being pushed 
out by competition, mechanization, and obsolescence, 
(40) the remaining sixty-five percent, more recently urban- 
ized, worked in newly developed industries---tobacco. 
lumber, coal and iron manufacture, and railroads. 
wages in the south, however, were low, and black 
workers were aware, through labor recruiters and the 
(45)black press, that they could earn more even as unskilled 
workers in the north than they could as artisans in the 
south. after the boll weevil infestation, urban black 
workers faced competition from the continuing influx 
of both black and white rural workers, who were driven 
(50) to undercut the wages formerly paid for industrial jobs. 
thus, a move north would be seen as advantageous 
to a group that was already urbanized and steadily 
employed, and the easy conclusion tying their subse- 
quent economic problems in the north to their rural 
background comes into question. 

the primary purpose of the passage is to 

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Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain. Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died. Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.

Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.

With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell. Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.

While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients. Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.


One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to


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