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Those who opine lose their impunity when the circumstances in which they pontificate are such that generate from their expression a positive instigation of some mischievous act. An opinion that corn dealers are starvers of the poor, or that owning private property is robbery, ought to be unmolested when simply circulated through the press, but may justly incur punishment when delivered orally to an excited mob assembled before the house of a corn dealer, or when handed about among the same mob in the form of a placard. Acts, of whatever kind, which without justifiable cause do harm to others, may be, and in the more important cases are absolutely required to be, controlled by the unfavourable sentiments, and, when needful, by the active interference of mankind. The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a nuisance to other people. But if he refrains from molesting others in matters that concern them, and merely acts according to his own inclination and judgment in matters which concern himself he should be allowed, without molestation, to carry his opinions into practice at his own cost. As it is useful that while mankind are imperfect there should be different opinions, so it is that there should be different experiments of living, that free scope should be given to varieties of character, short of injury to others, and that the worth of different modes of life should be proved practically, when anyone thinks fit to try them. Where not the person's own character but the traditions and customs of other people are the rule of conduct, there is wanting one of the principal ingredients of individual and social progress.

It would be absurd to pretend that people ought to live as if nothing whatever had been known in the world before they came into it; as if experience had as yet done nothing toward showing that one mode of existence, or of conduct, is preferable to another. Nobody denies that people should be so taught and trained in youth as to know and benefit by the ascertained results of human experience. But it is the privilege and proper condition of a human being, arrived at the maturity of his faculties, to use and interpret experience in his own way. It is for him to find out what part of recorded experience is properly applicable to his own circumstances and character. The traditions and customs of other people are, to a certain extent, evidence of what their experience has taught them-presumptive evidence, and as such, have a claim to his deference-but, in the first place, their experience may be too narrow, or they may have not interpreted it rightly. Secondly, their interpretation of experience may be correct, but unsuited to him. Customs are made for customary circumstances and customary characters, and his circumstances or his character may be uncustomary. Thirdly, though the customs be both good as customs and suitable to him, yet to conform to custom merely as custom does not educate him or develop in him any of the qualities which are the distinctive endowments of a human being. He gains no practice either in discerning or desiring what is best.

undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 


3. The existence of which of the following phenomena would most strongly challenge the author's argument about ―"conforming to custom merely as custom"?


A. A class in morality taught at a parochial high school

B. An important discovery made by a researcher who uses unconventional methods

C. A culture in which it is traditional to let children make their own decisions

D. A custom that involves celebrating a noteworthy historical event

E. a culture in which only the senior most person takes the important decisions

undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 

2. The author holds that one should not necessarily defer to the traditions and customs of other people. The author supports his position by arguing that:

I. traditions and customs are usually the result of misinterpreted experiences.

II. customs are based on experiences in the past, which are different from modern experiences.

III. customs can stifle one's individual development.

A. II only

B. III only

C. I and III only

D. II and III only

E. None


undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 

1. Based on information in the passage, with which of the following statements about opinions would the author most likely NOT disagree?



A. Different opinions exist because people are imperfect.


B. An opinion can be relatively harmless in one context and dangerous in another.


C. Opinions directed specifically against fellow human beings should be punished.


D. All expressions of opinion should really be considered actions.


E. An opinion always has an additional unintended effect

undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world's human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens. Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream. Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.

Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.

Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal's intestines are the parasite's sole breeding ground. Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats' intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats' droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host. Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.

undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 

1. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements is true of dendritic cells in the human body?   

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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2. According to the passage, all of the following are true of Toxoplasma gondii EXCEPT 

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3. The second paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage?  

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4. Which of the following is the most likely outcome for Toxoplasma cells that invade the human body?    

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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5. The author mentions “pigs and chickens” in the final paragraph in order to   

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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