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A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuro scientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.

The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon. Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.

The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring. While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.

Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere. On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.


The primary purpose of the passage is to:     

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http://www.gmatfreeprep.com/...I am no expert.still preparing for GMAT 
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What is your style of solving RC? Do you make structure, pen down key points or just read and go solving questions?

  • you must note down the points that too ,paragraph wise ,s.... 28 Jun.
KalkiDev
Kalki Dev @KalkiDev 7

you must note down the points that too ,paragraph wise ,so that you will correctly know which para have what ! so first read a para then in note down ..Main idea for that para and purpose ,of writing the given para ...paraphrase rc passage or read in ur own words so that each passage will interest you..

Reading:-

Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe (5) internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the (10) empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its (15) influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scho- larship had advanced. To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single (20) phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential (25) connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change. The common explanation of these apparent conn- ections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: (30) when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and lit- erature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to (35) economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival. No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the (40) 860‟s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire‟s favor. The beginning of the empire‟s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. (45) Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in (50) 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion.

According to the author, "The common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is 


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7. According to the author, "The common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is 

(B) 

(C) 

(D) 

(E) 

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Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe (5) internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the (10) empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its (15) influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scho- larship had advanced. To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single (20) phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential (25) connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change. The common explanation of these apparent conn- ections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: (30) when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and lit- erature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to (35) economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival. No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the (40) 860‟s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire‟s favor. The beginning of the empire‟s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. (45) Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in (50) 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion.


1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.

(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth- century Athens.

(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.

(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.

(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.

2. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?

(A) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine revival

(B) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured

(C) To suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies.

(D) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples

(E) To indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival

3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces

(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline

(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army

(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus

(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid Caliphate‟s military forces

(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental structures

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine Empire sustained significant territorial losses

(A) in 600

(B) during the seventh century

(C) a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost

(D) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning

(E) in the century after 873 5.

5.In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to

(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model

(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium

(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium

(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists

(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires


6. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began?

(A) The Byzantine military revival of the 860‟s led to economic and cultural advances.

(B) The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.

(C) The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900‟s.

(D) The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.

(E) By the early eleventh century the Byzantine Empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. According to the author, "The common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is (A) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire

(B) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress

(C) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival

(D) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome

(E) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon

Comment:

I am not understanding why my answer options are not correct in spite of having same sense as the answer choice. I need the cause for my wrong ans and also the correct ans for above questions. I have highlighted my ans choices with bold and also the questions

  • any body can crack this?. 25 Jun.



For years, U.S. employers have counted on a steady flow of labor from Mexico willing to accept low-skilled, low paying jobs. These workers, many of whom leave economically depressed villages in the Mexican interior, are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line. However, thanks to a dramatic demographic shift currently taking place in Mexico, the seemingly inexhaustible supply of workers migrating from Mexico to the United States might one day greatly diminish if not cease.
Predictions of such a drastic decrease in the number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, are driven by Mexico’s rapidly diminishing population growth. As a result of a decades-long family planning campaign, most Mexicans are having far fewer children than was the norm a generation ago. The campaign, organized around the slogan that “the small family lives better,” saw the Mexican government establish family-planning clinics and offer free contraception. For nearly three decades, the government’s message concerning population hasn’t wavered. In fact, the Mexican Senate recently voted to extend public school sex education programs to kindergarten.
The result of Mexico’s efforts to stem population growth is nothing short of stunning. In 1968, the average Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children; today, the figure is slightly more than two. For two primary reasons, Mexico’s new demographics could greatly impact the number of Mexicans seeking work in the U.S. First, smaller families by their nature limit the pool of potential migrants. Second, the slowing of Mexico’s population growth has fostered hope that Mexico will develop a healthy middle class of people content to make their livelihoods in their home country.
Though the former of these factors is all but assured, the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years. Mexico must invest in education, job training, and infrastructure, as well as a social-security system to protect its aging population. If Mexico is willing to step forward and meet this challenge, America may one day wake up to find that, like cheap gasoline, cheap Mexican labor has become a thing of the past.

The passage does NOT indicate which of the following concerning Mexico’s current demographics?

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undertheskygymworld.blogspot.in/ The secret of Life ,though,is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. 
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Hi Puys,

I am planning to write GMAT in a couple of months, mostly by August. When do you think would be the ideal time for me to give the exam keeping in mind that I would like to apply for SP Jain and ISB early entry program.

I have just graduated and will be working for Mu Sigma from July 16th. Have heard that the work there is quite strenuous and makes it tough for preparation and stuffs.

Though I have the OG as an e-book with me, I dont have any other preparation materials  and Mock exams with me. Kindly if possible send me links for E-books and mocks. Also I have listed my academic qualifications below, kindly look into it and assess if it is good enough for ISB and SP Jain?

Thanks


10th-93.8%

12th-90.2%

B.Tech CGPA -9.46 

Not bad Extra curriculars.

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  • @SairamIIMA post your queries in @prepzone . they.... 02 Jun.
One day you're the cock of the walk, the next a feather duster. 
REON04
CHANDAN DEBNATH @REON04 7

@SairamIIMA post  your queries in @prepzone        . they will reply you

Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of women’s emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the “relational” feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in difference,” or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labor in the family and throughout society and that women’s procreative labor is currently undervalued by society, to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender roles and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities.

Before the late nineteenth century, these views coexisted within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non-Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English-speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal rights for all. Relational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women’s special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for housework.

Relational arguments have a major pitfall: because they underline women’s physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and demning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy, could be harmonized with the family-oriented concerns of relational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge.


According to the passage, relational feminists and individualist feminists agree that




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Every champion was once a contender that refused to give up
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[Same Passage]


The passage supports which of the following statements about hiring policies in the United States?

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Every champion was once a contender that refused to give up
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Historians of women’s labor in the United States at first largely disregarded the story of female service workers—women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk, domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians focused instead on factory work, primarily because it seemed so different from traditional, unpaid “women’s work” in the home, and because the underlying economic forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind and hence emancipatory in effect. Unfortunately, emancipation has been less profound than expected, for not even industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segregation in the workplace.

To explain this unfinished revolution in the status of women, historians have recently begun to emphasize the way a prevailing definition of femininity often determines the kinds of work allocated to women, even when such allocation is inappropriate to new conditions. For instance, early textile-mill entrepreneurs, in justifying women’s employment in wage labor, made much of the assumption that women were by nature skillful at detailed tasks and patient in carrying out repetitive chores; the mill owners thus imported into the new industrial order hoary stereotypes associated with the homemaking activities they presumed to have been the purview of women. Because women accepted the more unattractive new industrial tasks more readily than did men, such jobs came to be regarded as female jobs. And employers, who assumed that women’s “real” aspirations were for marriage and family life, declined to pay women wages commensurate with those of men. Thus many lower-skilled, lower-paid, less secure jobs came to be perceived as “female.”

More remarkable than the original has been the persistence of such sex segregation in twentieth century industry. Once an occupation came to be perceived as female,” employers showed surprisingly little interest in changing that perception, even when higher profits beckoned. And despite the urgent need of the United States during the Second World War to mobilize its human resources fully, job segregation by sex characterized even the most important war industries. Moreover, once the war ended, employers quickly returned to men most of the “male” jobs that women had been permitted to master.


Which of the following words best expresses the opinion of the author of the passage concerning the notion that women are more skillful than men in carrying out detailed tasks?




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Every champion was once a contender that refused to give up
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