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According to the passage, many African American people joined the armed forces during the First World War for which of the following reasons?
It can be inferred from the passage that the “scholars” mentioned in line 24 believe which of the following to be true?
The passage suggests that many African American people responded to their experiences in the armed forces in which of the following ways?
When Jamaican-born social activist Marcus Garvey came to the United States in 1916, he arrived at precisely the right historical moment. What made the moment right was the return of African American soldiers from the First World War in 1918, which created an ideal constituency for someone with Garvey’s message of unity, pride, and improved conditions for African American communities. Hoping to participate in the traditional American ethos of individual success, many African American people entered the armed forces with enthusiasm, only to find themselves segregated from white troops and subjected to numerous indignities. They returned to a United States that was as segregated as it had been before the war. Considering similar experiences, anthropologist Anthony F. C. Wallace has argued that when a perceptible gap arises between a culture’s expectations and the reality of that culture, the resulting tension can inspire a revitalization movement: an organized, conscious effort to construct a culture that fulfills longstanding expectations. Some scholars have argued that Garvey created the consciousness from which he built, in the 1920s, the largest revitalization movement in African American history. But such an argument only tends to obscure the consciousness of identity, strength, and sense of history that already existed in the African American community. Garvey did not create this consciousness; rather, he gave this consciousness its political expression.
According to the passage, which of the following contributed to Marcus Garvey’s success?
hiii..puys! I have started my preparation days back.. the problem is i cant carry the book to office, so if u have any PDFs please share..
in the two decades between 1910 and 1930, over
ten percent to the black population of the united states
left the south, where the preponderance of the black
population had been located, and migrated to northern
(5) states, with the largest number moving, it is claimed,
between 1916 and 1918. it has been frequently assumed,
but not proved, that the majority of the migrants in
what has come to be called the great migration came
from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent
(10) factors: the collapse of the cotton industry following
the boll weevil infestation, which began in 1898, and
increased demand in the north for labor following
the cessation of european immigration caused by the
outbreak of the first world war in 1914. this assump-
(15) tion has led to the conclusion that the migrants' subse-
quent lack of economic mobility in the north is tied to
rural background, a background that implies unfamil-
iarity with urban living and a lack of industrial skills.
but the question of who actually left the south has
(20) never been rigorously investigated. although numerous
investigations document an exodus from rural southern
areas to southern cities prior to the great migration.
no one has considered whether the same migrants then
moved on to northern cities. in 1910 over 600,000
(25) black workers, or ten percent of the black work force,
reported themselves to be engaged in "manufacturing
and mechanical pursuits," the federal census category
roughly encompassing the entire industrial sector. the
great migration could easily have been made up entirely
(30) of this group and their families. it is perhaps surprising
to argue that an employed population could be enticed
to move, but an explanation lies in the labor conditions
then prevalent in the south.
about thirty-five percent of the urban black popu-
(35) lation in the south was engaged in skilled trades. some
were from the old artisan class of slavery-blacksmiths.
masons, carpenters-which had had a monopoly of
certain trades, but they were gradually being pushed
out by competition, mechanization, and obsolescence,
(40) the remaining sixty-five percent, more recently urban-
ized, worked in newly developed industries---tobacco.
lumber, coal and iron manufacture, and railroads.
wages in the south, however, were low, and black
workers were aware, through labor recruiters and the
(45)black press, that they could earn more even as unskilled
workers in the north than they could as artisans in the
south. after the boll weevil infestation, urban black
workers faced competition from the continuing influx
of both black and white rural workers, who were driven
(50) to undercut the wages formerly paid for industrial jobs.
thus, a move north would be seen as advantageous
to a group that was already urbanized and steadily
employed, and the easy conclusion tying their subse-
quent economic problems in the north to their rural
background comes into question.
the primary purpose of the passage is to
Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain. Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died. Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.
Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.
With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell. Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.
While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients. Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.
One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to
A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuro scientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon. Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring. While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere. On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
The primary purpose of the passage is to:
What is your style of solving RC? Do you make structure, pen down key points or just read and go solving questions?
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