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If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set tiebreak, the lower-ranked player always loses the tiebreak (and, therefore, the match). If Rafael, the second-ranked player, wins a tournament by beating Roger, the top ranked player, then the match must not have included a fifth-set tiebreak. Which of the following arguments most
closely mimics the reasoning used in the above argument?
Commercial: 90% of the dentists we surveyed state that they prefer Galactico gum to any of its competitors, and why wouldn’t they? Galactico gum is the only gum proven to help bad breath and gingivitis, statements that have been evaluated and approved by the federal health authority. So if you care about great taste and great dental health, trust the experts and pick up Galactico gum.
Which of the following is an example of dubious reasoning in the argument?
The method used to survey the dentists is not given.
Great taste and great dental health need not go together.
Few consumers care about great dental health
The dentists might also recommend a number of other gums.
Galactico gum may not be to everyone’s liking.
In the Business program at a university, all candidates for the MBA in International Business who entered the program after 1990 took a seminar on Microeconomics, and all candidates for the MBA in International Business who entered the program after 1994 took a seminar on Applied Economics.
If a student in the Business program described above took a seminar on Microeconomics but did not take a seminar on Applied Economics, which of the following must be true?
The student entered the Business program prior to 1995.
The student entered the Business program after 1990 and prior to 1995.
If the student was a candidate for the MBA in International Business, then the student entered the program prior to 1995.
If the student was a candidate for the MBA in International Business, then the student entered the program prior to 1991.
If the student was a candidate for the MBA in International Business, then the student entered the program after 1990 and prior to 1995.
Brunhilda: Economists have predicted that our generation will be the first that cannot confidently look forward to having a better standard of living than that enjoyed by our parents.
Siegfried: That's simply untrue. My father's standard of living is nowhere near as high as his parents' was, and my own standard of living is already higher than that of my parents.
Which of the following best describes the error of reasoning contained in Siegfried's argument above?
It relies upon an unreasonable appeal to authority.
It assumes the truth of what it sets out to prove.
It offers an example that is not inconsistent with Brunhilda's argument.
It is based on an unproven speculation about future events.
It uses evidence of a correlation to argue the existence of a causal relationship.
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Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts.
Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists' hypothesis?
In the past, most children who went sledding in the winter snow in Verland used wooden sleds with runners and steering bars. Ten years ago, smooth plastic sleds became popular; they go faster than wooden sleds but are harder to steer and slow. The concern that plastic sleds are more dangerous is clearly borne out by the fact that the number of children injured while sledding was much higher last winter than it was 10 years ago.
Which of the following, if true in Verland, most seriously undermines the force of the evidence cited?
Smithtown University's fund-raisers succeeded in getting donations from 80 percent of the potential donors they contacted. This success rate, exceptionally high for university fund-raisers, does not indicate that they were doing a good job. On the contrary, since the people most likely to donate are those who have donated in the past, good fundraisers constantly try less-likely prospects in an effort to expand the donor base. The high success rate shows insufficient canvassing effort.
Which of the following, if true, provides more support for the argument?
Can anyone give me an idea how much this essay would fetch ? Wrong thread.. still...!
AWA ESSAYS: Analyze Argument
ESSAY QUESTION:The following appeared in a corporate memorandum of a beverage manufacturer:
"Our promotional price reductions on energy drinks have been highly successful, as we have seen a dramatic increase in unit sales. Further, surveys of our consumers indicate that this promotion was favorably received by the majority of our customers. Therefore, to improve our company's profitability and enhance its perception in the eyes of consumers, similar price reductions should be offered on all drinks produced by our firm."
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. Point out flaws in the argument's logic and analyze the argument's underlying assumptions. In addition, evaluate how supporting evidence is used and what evidence might counter the argument's conclusion. You may also discuss what additional evidence could be used to strengthen the argument or what changes would make the argument more logically sound.
The argument states that the company's promotional price reductions on energy drinks have been highly successful, as there has been a dramatic increase in the unit sales. The argument further says that to increase the company's profitability and enhance its perception in the eyes of its consumers, similar price reductions should be offered on all drinks produced by the firm. The argument is flawed for the underlying assumptions made without any proper evidence.
First, the argument assumes that the increase in unit sales is due to the price reduction on the energy drinks. This may or may not be true. The increase in unit sales of the energy drink could be due to other factors as well. For example, a recent tie up of the company with some fast food chain restaurant or any particular advertisement or even a dip in popularity of its rival drink can be a reason for the increase in sales.
Second, the argument assumes the profitability of the company can be enhanced by the price reduction. Even if the price reduction is causing an increase in the sales of the energy drink, it might not be increasing the revenue as a whole. In fact, a reduction in price per unit and an increase in the unit sales might push the operating cost up as well. If the increase in the unit sales cannot be maintained over a long term, the firm might actually end up losing revenue and thereby profitability due to this move.
Finally, the argument assumes that a price reduction on all drinks produced by the firm will yield the same results as observed with the price reduction on energy drinks. This assumption is flawed as the popularity of the drinks can be dependant on factors other than price alone. A lot of customers consider factors like brand, taste and reliability while purchasing drinks.
The argument is thus flawed and unconvincing in many ways. The argument makes a lot of assumptions without proper evidence. However the argument can be strengthened if proper evidence can be provided for the assumptions made. Without that, the argument remains rather hollow and open to debate.
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