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Certain oil companies have been called poor corporate citizens because they have opposed government action to limit global warming by undermining scientific research that characterizes the issue as severe. However, these same oil companies have also invested millions of dollars in scientific research to address the long term effects of climate change. Which of the following best explains the apparent discrepancy in the situation described above?
When Bob’s Bistro opened in the town of Montrose last year, the proprietors of Andrew’s Eatery, the only other restaurant in town, feared that their business would suffer. Surprisingly though, in the past year the average number of meals per day served at Andrew’s Eatery has actually increased significantly.
Which of the following, if true, provides the best explanation for this occurrence?
Small community hospitals in poor urban areas almost always operate at a loss due to an unfortunate cycle of factors. High revenue specialists, such as surgeons, flock to hospitals that are more prestigious and can afford to pay higher salaries. Aware of this, local residents patronize the more affluent nearby hospitals when they need specialty care or forgo care entirely, while only utilizing the local hospital for low-margin routine care. Further, a significant majority of the community uses government health plans, which reimburse poorly for routine care, or lacks insurance entirely and cannot pay. The local hospital then loses money and cannot afford to hire specialists to conduct the higher-margin specialty care. Which of the following, if it could be accomplished, would best help small community hospitals to break the pattern described above?
Greek tragedy, one of the enduring pillars of our belief system, dramatized the concept that the misfortune a person suffers is not an accident, but rather a logical outcome of flaws in that person's nature; the misfortune is thus that person's "fault." Nonetheless, today the public broadly supports bankruptcy protection, family welfare and other "social safety net" programs that shield the destitute in the face of their hardships, at taxpayer expense. Which of the following, if true, would best resolve the paradox in the statements above?
Most land-dwelling vertebrates have rotating limbs terminating in digits, a characteristic useful for land movement. Biologists who assume that this characteristic evolved only after animals abandoned aquatic environments must consider the Acanthostega, a newly discovered ancestor of all land vertebrates. It possessed rotating limbs terminating in digits, but its skeleton was too feeble for land movement. It also breathed using only internal gills, indicating that it and its predecessors were exclusively aquatic.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?
Editorialist: The positions advanced by radical environmentalists often contain hypotheses that are false and proposals that are economically infeasible. But there is a positive role to be played even by these extremists, for the social and political inertia that attends environmental issues is so stubborn that even small areas of progress can be made only if the populace fears environmental disaster, however untenable the reasons for those fears may be.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the editorialist’s argument?
Finding of a survey of Systems magazine subscribers: Thirty percent of all merchandise orders placed by subscribers in response to advertisements in the magazine last year were placed by subscribers under age thirty-five.
Finding of a survey of advertisers in Systems magazine: Most of the merchandise orders placed in response to advertisements in Systems last year were placed by people under age thirty-five.
For both of the findings to be accurate, which of the following must be true?
Although the discount stores in Goreville's central shopping district are expected to close within five years as a result of competition from a SpendLess discount department store that just opened, those locations will not stay vacant for long. In the five years since the opening of Colson's, a non-discount department store, a new store has opened at the location of every store in the shopping district that closed because it could not compete with Colson's.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
The irradiation of food kills bacteria and thus retards spoilage. However, it also lowers the nutritional value of many foods. For example, irradiation destroys a significant percentage of whatever vitamin B1 a food may contain. Proponents of irradiation, point out that irradiation is no worse in this respect than cooking. However, this fact is either beside the point, since much irradiated food is eaten raw, or else misleading, since ________
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.
In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
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