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#CR17 Although most smoking-related illnesses are caused by inhaling the tar in tobacco smoke, it is addiction to nicotine that prevents most smokers from quitting. In an effort to decrease the incidence of smoking-related illnesses, lawmakers in Sandonia plan to reduce the average quantity of nicotine per cigarette by half over the next five years. Unfortunately, smokers who are already addicted to nicotine tend to react to such reductions by smoking correspondingly more cigarettes. The information above most strongly supports which of the following predictions about the effects of implementing the Sandonian government's plan?
#CR16 Shipping Clerk: The five specially ordered shipments sent out last week were sent out on Thursday. Last week, all of the shipments that were sent out on Friday consisted entirely of building supplies, and the shipping department then closed for the weekend. Four shipments were sent to Truax Construction last week, only three of which consisted of building supplies. If the shipping clerk's statements are true, which of the following must also be true?
#CR15 Which of following most logically completes the argument? The last members of a now-extinct species of a European wild deer called the giant dear lived in Ireland about 16,000 years ago. Prehistoric cave paintings in France depict this animal as having a large hump on its back. Fossils of this animal, however, do not show any hump. Nevertheless, there is no reason to conclude that the cave paintings are therefore inaccurate in this regard, since ___.
#CR14 Brochure: Help conserve our city's water supply. By converting the landscaping in your yard to a water-conserving landscape, you can greatly reduce your outdoor water use. A water-conserving landscape is natural and attractive, and it also saves you money.
Criticism: For most people with yards, the savings from converting to a water-conserving landscape cannot justify the expense of new landscaping, since typically the conversion would save less than twenty dollars on a homeowner's yearly water bills.
Which of the following, if true, provides the best basis for a rebuttal of the criticism?
#CR13 Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers who pay
their bill in cash tend to be larger when the bill is presented on a
tray that bears a credit-card logo. Consumer psychologists hypothesize
that simply seeing a credit-card logo makes many credit-card holders
willing to spend more because it reminds them that their spending power
exceeds the cash they have immediately available.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the psychologists' interpretation of the studies?
#CR12 Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
Garnet and RenCo each provide health care for their employees. Garnet pays for both testing of its employees' cholesterol levels and treatment of high cholesterol. This policy saves Garnet money, since high cholesterol left untreated for many years leads to conditions that require very expensive treatment. However, RenCo does not have the same financial incentive to adopt such a policy, because ____.
#CR11 Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because _____.
#CR10 Sunflowers growing in pots were placed, with their roots submerged, in
the pond contaminated with radioactive elements. The sunflowers kept
growing; in the process, they absorbed radioactive elements. Within
twelve days, 85 percent of the radioactive elements were removed from
the water, which is no less than can be accomplished with the much more
expensive conventional filtration techniques. Scientists therefore
propose using sunflowers for decontamination wherever there are
radioactively contaminated ponds.
Which of the following, if true, points to a limitation on the applicability of the proposed method of decontamination?
#CR9 The quality of unrefined olive oil is not actually defined in terms of
acidity, yet extensive tests have shown that the less free oleic acid an
unrefined olive oil contains per liter, the higher its quality. The
proportion of free oleic acid that an olive oil contains is an accurate
measure of the oil's acidity.
If the statements above are all true, which of the following conclusions is best supported by them?
The number of articles concerning the use of sensatorium dummies in crash testing published last year in consumer magazines was considerably lower relative to prior years. No longer manufactured, these dummies can be severely damaged in crash tests and many of the sensatorium dummies damaged two years ago are still awaiting necessary repairs. It is clear, therefore, that the lower number of consumer magazine articles published last year about sensatorium dummies was due to the decline in their availability for use.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the news reporter's argument?
#CR8 Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since ____.
#CR7 Which of the following most logically completes the passage below?
Heavy rains during Centralia's corn planting season prevented some farmers there from planting corn. It is now the planting season for soybeans, another of Centralia's principal crops, and those fields originally intended for corn are dry enough for planting. Nonetheless, even though soybean prices are unusually high at present, the farmers will leave most of these fields empty rather than plant them with soybeans, since ____.
#CR6 A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting
blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds
from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the
machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating
the need for manual weeding.
Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company's implementing its plan to develop the prototype?
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